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BMS 508

by: Jess Graff
Jess Graff

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These notes cover the lecture on February 8th
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD
Class Notes
Anatomy & Physiology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Graff on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
BMS 508.03 2/8/2016 Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System An Intro to the Blood and Cardiovascular System • The Cardiovascular System consists of: • A pump (the heart) • A conducting system (blood vessels) • A fluid medium (blood) • Specialized fluid of connective tissue • Contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix • Blood • Transports materials to and from cells • Oxygen and carbon dioxide • Nutrients • Hormones • Immune system components • Waste products Physical Characteristics of Blood • Important Functions of Blood • Transportation of dissolved substances • Regulation of pH and ions • Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites • Defense against toxins and pathogens • Stabilization of body temperature • Whole Blood • Plasma • Fluid consisting of: • Water • Dissolved plasma proteins • Other solutes • Formed elements • All cells and solids • Three Types of Formed Elements • Red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes • Transport oxygen • White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes • Part of the immune system • Platelets • Cell fragments involved in clotting • Hemopoiesis • Process of producing formed elements by myeloid and lymphoid stem cells • Fractionation • Process of separating whole blood for clinical analysis into plasma and formed elements • 3 General Characteristics of Blood • 38C (100.4F) is normal temperature • High viscosity • Slightly alkaline pH (7.35–7.45) • Characteristics of Blood • Blood volume (liters)  7% of body weight (kilograms) • Adult male: 5–6 liters • Adult female: 4–5 liters Plasma • The Composition of Plasma • Makes up 50–60% of blood volume • More than 90% of plasma is water • Extracellular fluids • Interstitial fluid (IF) and plasma • Materials plasma and IF exchange across capillary walls • Water • Ions • Small solutes • Plasma Proteins • Albumins (60%) • Globulins (35%) • Fibrinogen (4%) • Albumins (60%) • Transport substances such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones • Globulins (35%) • Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins • Transport globulins (small molecules): hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins (lipoproteins), and steroid-binding proteins • Fibrinogen (4%) • Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble strands of fibrin • Serum • Liquid part of a blood sample • In which dissolved fibrinogen converts to solid fibrin • Other Plasma Proteins • 1% of plasma • Changing quantities of specialized plasma proteins • Peptide hormones normally present in circulating blood • Insulin, prolactin (PRL), and the glycoproteins thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) • Origins of Plasma Proteins • More than 90% made in liver • Antibodies made by plasma cells • Peptide hormones made by endocrine organs Red Blood Cells • Red blood cells (RBCs) • Make up 99.% of blood’s formed elements • Hemoglobin • The red pigment that gives whole blood its color • Binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide • Abundance of RBCs • Red blood cell count – the number of RBCs in 1 microliter of whole blood • Male: 4.5–6.3 million • Female: 4.2–5.5 million • Hematocrit – (packed cell volume, PCV) percentage of RBCs in centrifuged whole blood • Male: 40–54 • Female: 37–47 • Structure of RBCs • Small and highly specialized discs • Thin in middle and thicker at edge • 3 Important Effects of RBC Shape on Function • High surface-to-volume ratio • Quickly absorbs and releases oxygen • Discs form stacks called rouleaux • Smooth the flow through narrow blood vessels • Discs bend and flex entering small capillaries • 7.8-µm RBC passes through 4-µm capillary • Life Span of RBCs • Lack nuclei, mitochondria, and ribosomes • Means no repair and anaerobic metabolism • Live about 120 days • Hemoglobin (Hb) • Protein molecule that transports respiratory gases • Normal hemoglobin (adult male) • 14–18 g/dL whole blood • Normal hemoglobin (adult female) • 12–16 g/dL whole blood • Hemoglobin Structure • Complex quaternary structure • Four globular protein subunits • Each with one molecule of heme • Each heme contains one iron ion • Iron ions • Associate easily with oxygen (oxyhemoglobin, HbO ) 2 • Dissociate easily from oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin) • Fetal Hemoglobin • Strong form of hemoglobin found in embryos • Takes oxygen from mother’s hemoglobin • Hemoglobin Function • Carries oxygen • With low oxygen (peripheral capillaries): • Hemoglobin releases oxygen • Binds carbon dioxide and carries it to lungs • Forms carbaminohemoglobin • RBC Formation and Turnover • 1% of circulating RBCs wear out per day • About 3 million new RBCs per second • Hemoglobin Conversion and Recycling • Macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow • Monitor RBCs • Engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze) • Hemoglobin Conversion and Recycling • Phagocytes break hemoglobin into components • Globular proteins to amino acids • Heme to biliverdin • Iron • Hemoglobinuria • Hemoglobin breakdown products in urine due to excess hemolysis in bloodstream • Hematuria • Whole red blood cells in urine due to kidney or tissue damage • Breakdown of Biliverdin • Biliverdin (green) is converted to bilirubin (yellow) • Bilirubin • Excreted by liver (bile) • Jaundice is caused by bilirubin buildup • Converted by intestinal bacteria to urobilins and stercobilins • Iron Recycling • Iron removed from heme leaving biliverdin • To transport proteins (transferrin) • To storage proteins (ferritin and hemosiderin) • RBC Production • Erythropoiesis • Occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in adults • Stem cells mature to become RBCs • Hemocytoblasts • Stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce: • Myeloid stem cells become RBCs, some WBCs • Lymphoid stem cells become lymphocytes • Stages of RBC Maturation • Myeloid stem cell • Proerythroblast • Erythroblasts • Reticulocyte • Mature RBC • Regulation of Erythropoiesis • Building red blood cells requires: • Amino acids • Iron • Vitamins B , 12, a6d folic acid • Pernicious anemia • Low RBC production • Due to unavailability of vitamin B 12 • Stimulating Hormones • Erythropoietin (EPO) • Also called erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone • Secreted when oxygen in peripheral tissues is low (hypoxia) • Due to disease or high altitude Blood Typing • Surface Antigens • Are cell surface proteins that identify cells to immune system • Normal cells are ignored and foreign cells attacked • Blood Types • Are genetically determined • By presence or absence of RBC surface antigens A, B, Rh (or D)


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