US History Notes Week 2 of classes
US History Notes Week 2 of classes History 2003
Popular in US History to 1877
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mandi Burgess on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2003 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Treat in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see US History to 1877 in History at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
US HISTORY -1877 Week 2 Notes Colliding Cultures Leif Ericson- Big deal for voyagers not such a big deal for everyone else. Natives ran them out Getting Europe ready (things to make Europe move outward) European Powers Technological advances had to made to move Crusades- forces people out Exposure to eastern goods like spices, silk,& porcelain. Marco Polo- exporation Renaissance- people want to explore, invent and do art & etc. Population Boom- large # of people in a small area Why Go? God: Make new Christian converts Glory: Win fame for themselves & their country Gold: Demand for Eastern good promised profit. Turks blocked the way to Asia & hurt trade so they needed a new route to Asia Portugal Henry the Navigator Used his wealth to start a school for exploration & science His explorers rounded Cape Verde, beginning Arab trade routes African trade Portugese with slaves & gold Part of his mission was looking for Pastor John to advance trade. Pastor John was a legend/myth and was thought to be the best pastor of the time. 1488- Batomeu Dias- First around the Cape 1498- Vasco da Gamas- also rounded the Cape 1500- Pedro Alvarez Cabral- claimed brazil for Portugal 1521-22- Ferdinand Magellan- traveled around the whole globe He didn’t actually make it all the way b/c he died at sea but his crew did actually make it. Spain in the New World Columbus Portuguese, French, & English turned him down because of bad Math. (His calculations were off so they figured his sailing wouldn’t be that accurate) Spanish decided to take a chance with 3 ships & small crews first believed he landed in East indies islands printing press- makes his voyage spread rapidly conquest gives way to encomenda & mission Columbian Exchange Europe Benefits 2 Agri- Tobacco, tomatoes, maize, potatoes, & beans. Economy- Gold, Silver, & new market for finished product Columbian Exchange Cont. American Benefits GOOD Agri- Horses, cattle, pigs, rice, wheat. Epidemic: mumps, measles, typhus, chicken pox, BAD & smallpox. Hispaniolas 1492 pop. 300K by 1548 down to 500 from diseases. Cultural Dissonance Religions- Spanish thought Natives were Heathens, but converting these people was still a big deal. Land- Europeans viewed it as land-owned, Natives viewed it as a community owned thing. Gender Roles: Europeans thought that Natives roles were strange. Because the women played important role in the household unlike in Europe were the women were strictly house wives. Consequences of Columbus Leaves a bunch of land to Spain as “New Spain” Make “Admiral of Oceans” Conquest of Mexico Hernan Cortes Came from a distinguished but impoverished family, had to make money & name for his self. 3 1519: Lands with 600 men in Veracruz defeats natives subject to Aztecs, then they join him. Goes into capital Tenochtitlan Aztec leader “Montezuma” tries to bribe them to go back, but they keep coming (mainly because they realize how much wealth was to be made) & then he invites them into the city and they take it. Gold Fever Europeans measure wealth in precious metals Bring in Gold, but don’t let it leave Montezuma make gifts to Cortes, including Gold Spanish make Mont. Give them miners. Aztecs rebell-1520 Cortes gets backup from Cuba-1521 How the Spanish won Guns- put fear in them because fire coming out it Germs- #1 European weapon Steel- swords & armor far outclass stone weapons Animals- horses & war dogs give major physiological advantage Allies- rival native groups often fought for the conquistadors Fate of the Natives Encomienda- military offers “protected” groups of natives Forced to convert 4 Forced to work Disobedients’ flogged(beaten) Missions Hundreds of Catholic mission in New Spain Missionaries work to evangelize natives Brutal treatment to force conversions Black Legend Spain’s brutality exaggerated Spanish did forbid slavery of natives Spanish did create hybrid of hierarchal culture English often preferred to genocide rather coexist Spanish in North America Spain owned a lot of what is now American land. st Francisco Vasquez de Coronado- 1 Spaniard to visit for GOLD Santa Fe found in 1610 Settlements are remote compared to cosmopolitan Mexico Catholic Missions- attempt to force local Pueblo people to abandon their traditions Pueblo Revolt 1670’s: drought & raids hit (raids from Indians) Pueblos starve & die of disease 1675: revolt led by shamans, Spaniards capture 47 kill 3 & whipping the rest in public 1680: Former whipped pope rallies pueblos destroy Spaniards & their church 5 August 1680- the Spaniards are chased out Aftermath of Revolt Great setback that natives had on Europeans Spaniards came back but were more tolerant European Background Through the Renaissance Believed in witches, demons, angels, astrology, etc… Didn’t question church & state relationship Most Euros are Catholic The Reformation 1517 Martin Lither- posted 95 augments against the Catholic church. Causes multiple, competing churches. Reformation Fallout Religion now has personal & political aspects War of Religion Europe 1524-1648 Reform overlaps causes modern nation-states One King, One Law, One Faith All ideas transported to Americas French in North America New France like English plunder ships of Spanish Go North instead of South Jacques Cartier sailed up St. Lawrence lead to settlement of New France *Fur Trade!!!* 6 Qubec founded in 1608, French Pop 85 in 1627 *Timber!* An abundance in Canada. Ship Building! Louisiana Boloxi, Mobile, & New Orleans. 1682,1702, & 1722 Arkansas Post 1686 & St. Genevieve 1735 France is more interested in trade in fur & fishing rather than land settlement French have an Okay relationship with the natives Minority position- didn’t act stupid(trying to take over) because they needed native help. Part 2 of Lecture week 2 Rocky Starts English in Americas Spain vs. England –Rivals, Religious, Armada & privateers Mercantilism- Sell a lot, buy little, stockpile John Cabot- claimed large parts of America in 1497 Cod is very important to English “Grand Banks” Fishing fleets sent Motive to Colonize Population boom Raw materials are having to be bought from competition New markets for English goods Roanoke Lost Colony Failed 7 Island off North Carolina 1585- first voyage, attempt abandoned 1587- 100 settlers arrive(Families) 1590- Everyone gone when supply ship returns Croaton- on a tree there, it was the name of an island up north from Roanoke. No one really knows for sure what happened or where the people went. Virginia 1 successful colony- 1607- Jamestown named as Queen Elizabeth 1 Virginia Company: joint-stock company no common 60 miles up James river to avoid Spanish raids wasn’t supposed to be a settlement. It started with 104 men. Early Struggles The men who came thought they were intitled. *Gentlemen First wave of men were unskilled adventurers Wanted to find precious metals, not work on a Farm Fight with Powhattan Indians Swamy, unhealthy landscape Malaria, dysentery, & salt poisoning – common 8 Only 38 men left after 9 months Water bourne disease- horrible water Salty Water when its High Tide Slimy Water when its Low Tide John Smith Councilors” of VA company 1608- He was President New Law- No Work. No Food. Not popular- possible assassination 1609 Explored the Chesapeake Explored North Atlantic naming “New England” 1614 Maps & Writings very important for future settlers Starving Time 1609-1610 settlers steal from Indians native seek revenge so they are trapped in settlement Ate animals & shoe leather & corpses 60 were left then 300 arrived on ships. 9
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