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US History Notes Week 2 of classes

by: Mandi Burgess

US History Notes Week 2 of classes History 2003

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > History > History 2003 > US History Notes Week 2 of classes
Mandi Burgess
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About this Document

Notes Cover -European Powers -Columbian Exchange -Conquest of Mexico -Rocky starts in the Americas -etc.
US History to 1877
Dr. Treat
Class Notes
history, france, Spain, Portugal, england, American History




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mandi Burgess on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2003 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Treat in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see US History to 1877 in History at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
US HISTORY -1877 Week 2 Notes  Colliding Cultures  Leif Ericson- Big deal for voyagers not such a big deal for everyone else.  Natives ran them out  Getting Europe ready (things to make Europe move outward)  European Powers  Technological advances had to made to move  Crusades- forces people out  Exposure to eastern goods like spices, silk,& porcelain.  Marco Polo- exporation  Renaissance- people want to explore, invent and do art & etc.  Population Boom- large # of people in a small area  Why Go? God: Make new Christian converts Glory: Win fame for themselves & their country Gold: Demand for Eastern good promised profit. Turks blocked the way to Asia & hurt trade so they needed a new route to Asia  Portugal Henry the Navigator Used his wealth to start a school for exploration & science His explorers rounded Cape Verde, beginning Arab trade routes African trade Portugese with slaves & gold Part of his mission was looking for Pastor John to advance trade.  Pastor John was a legend/myth and was thought to be the best pastor of the time. 1488- Batomeu Dias- First around the Cape 1498- Vasco da Gamas- also rounded the Cape 1500- Pedro Alvarez Cabral- claimed brazil for Portugal 1521-22- Ferdinand Magellan- traveled around the whole globe He didn’t actually make it all the way b/c he died at sea but his crew did actually make it.  Spain in the New World Columbus  Portuguese, French, & English turned him down because of bad Math. (His calculations were off so they figured his sailing wouldn’t be that accurate)  Spanish decided to take a chance with 3 ships & small crews  first believed he landed in East indies islands  printing press- makes his voyage spread rapidly  conquest gives way to encomenda & mission  Columbian Exchange  Europe Benefits 2  Agri- Tobacco, tomatoes, maize, potatoes, & beans.  Economy- Gold, Silver, & new market for finished product  Columbian Exchange Cont.  American Benefits GOOD  Agri- Horses, cattle, pigs, rice, wheat.  Epidemic: mumps, measles, typhus, chicken pox, BAD & smallpox.  Hispaniolas 1492 pop. 300K by 1548 down to 500 from diseases.  Cultural Dissonance  Religions- Spanish thought Natives were Heathens, but converting these people was still a big deal.  Land- Europeans viewed it as land-owned, Natives viewed it as a community owned thing.  Gender Roles: Europeans thought that Natives roles were strange. Because the women played important role in the household unlike in Europe were the women were strictly house wives.  Consequences of Columbus  Leaves a bunch of land to Spain as “New Spain”  Make “Admiral of Oceans”  Conquest of Mexico  Hernan Cortes  Came from a distinguished but impoverished family, had to make money & name for his self. 3  1519: Lands with 600 men in Veracruz  defeats natives subject to Aztecs, then they join him.  Goes into capital Tenochtitlan  Aztec leader “Montezuma” tries to bribe them to go back, but they keep coming (mainly because they realize how much wealth was to be made) & then he invites them into the city and they take it.  Gold Fever  Europeans measure wealth in precious metals  Bring in Gold, but don’t let it leave  Montezuma make gifts to Cortes, including Gold  Spanish make Mont. Give them miners.  Aztecs rebell-1520  Cortes gets backup from Cuba-1521  How the Spanish won  Guns- put fear in them because fire coming out it  Germs- #1 European weapon  Steel- swords & armor far outclass stone weapons  Animals- horses & war dogs give major physiological advantage  Allies- rival native groups often fought for the conquistadors  Fate of the Natives  Encomienda- military offers “protected” groups of natives  Forced to convert 4  Forced to work  Disobedients’ flogged(beaten)  Missions  Hundreds of Catholic mission in New Spain  Missionaries work to evangelize natives  Brutal treatment to force conversions  Black Legend  Spain’s brutality exaggerated  Spanish did forbid slavery of natives  Spanish did create hybrid of hierarchal culture  English often preferred to genocide rather coexist  Spanish in North America  Spain owned a lot of what is now American land. st  Francisco Vasquez de Coronado- 1 Spaniard to visit for GOLD  Santa Fe found in 1610  Settlements are remote compared to cosmopolitan Mexico  Catholic Missions- attempt to force local Pueblo people to abandon their traditions  Pueblo Revolt  1670’s: drought & raids hit (raids from Indians)  Pueblos starve & die of disease  1675: revolt led by shamans, Spaniards capture 47 kill 3 & whipping the rest in public  1680: Former whipped pope rallies pueblos destroy Spaniards & their church 5  August 1680- the Spaniards are chased out  Aftermath of Revolt  Great setback that natives had on Europeans  Spaniards came back but were more tolerant  European Background  Through the Renaissance  Believed in witches, demons, angels, astrology, etc…  Didn’t question church & state relationship  Most Euros are Catholic  The Reformation  1517 Martin Lither- posted 95 augments against the Catholic church.  Causes multiple, competing churches.  Reformation Fallout  Religion now has personal & political aspects  War of Religion Europe 1524-1648  Reform overlaps causes modern nation-states  One King, One Law, One Faith  All ideas transported to Americas  French in North America  New France like English plunder ships of Spanish  Go North instead of South  Jacques Cartier sailed up St. Lawrence lead to settlement of New France  *Fur Trade!!!* 6  Qubec founded in 1608, French Pop 85 in 1627  *Timber!* An abundance in Canada. Ship Building!  Louisiana  Boloxi, Mobile, & New Orleans. 1682,1702, & 1722  Arkansas Post 1686 & St. Genevieve 1735  France is more interested in trade in fur & fishing rather than land settlement  French have an Okay relationship with the natives  Minority position- didn’t act stupid(trying to take over) because they needed native help. Part 2 of Lecture week 2  Rocky Starts  English in Americas  Spain vs. England –Rivals, Religious, Armada & privateers  Mercantilism- Sell a lot, buy little, stockpile  John Cabot- claimed large parts of America in 1497  Cod is very important to English “Grand Banks”  Fishing fleets sent  Motive to Colonize  Population boom  Raw materials are having to be bought from competition  New markets for English goods  Roanoke Lost Colony  Failed 7  Island off North Carolina  1585- first voyage, attempt abandoned  1587- 100 settlers arrive(Families)  1590- Everyone gone when supply ship returns  Croaton- on a tree there, it was the name of an island up north from Roanoke.  No one really knows for sure what happened or where the people went. Virginia  1 successful colony- 1607- Jamestown  named as Queen Elizabeth 1  Virginia Company: joint-stock company no common  60 miles up James river to avoid Spanish raids  wasn’t supposed to be a settlement. It started with 104 men. Early Struggles  The men who came thought they were intitled. *Gentlemen  First wave of men were unskilled adventurers  Wanted to find precious metals, not work on a Farm  Fight with Powhattan Indians  Swamy, unhealthy landscape  Malaria, dysentery, & salt poisoning – common 8  Only 38 men left after 9 months  Water bourne disease- horrible water  Salty Water when its High Tide  Slimy Water when its Low Tide John Smith  Councilors” of VA company  1608- He was President  New Law- No Work. No Food.  Not popular- possible assassination 1609  Explored the Chesapeake  Explored North Atlantic naming “New England” 1614  Maps & Writings very important for future settlers Starving Time  1609-1610  settlers steal from Indians  native seek revenge so they are trapped in settlement  Ate animals & shoe leather & corpses  60 were left then 300 arrived on ships. 9


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