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HIST 278 Week 6 Notes

by: Lynde Wangler

HIST 278 Week 6 Notes HIST 278

Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

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Lecture Notes from Week 6; not on exam 1
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
HIST 278 Week 6 Notes th The Slave Trade at its 18 Century Peak I. Increase in Trade II. Destinations III. Expansion of the Plantation Complex a. British West Indies b. French West Indies c. Brazil d. British North America IV. Plantation Generations of Slavery  Peak years 1750-1800/first ¼ of 19 century (most – Brazil) o Most active slave traders were Britain (importing to the West Indies; Caribbean colonies) and Portuguese (importing to Brazil) o Spanish South America labor force  indigenous population rebounded so they became the main source of labor o Rising demand in Europe for luxury items, advances in technologies, and politics in America all contributed  political transformations (revolutions) & westward expansion (there was colonial expansion in all territories; they were taking over more and more land); with the expansion of colonial society, plantations became the economic base in more and more areas because of the rising demand for goods in Europe (expansion of consumer demand = plantation formation/growth) o In Africa, more and more leaders were getting involved and selling people in exchange for resources o Major Causes:  Expansion of consumer demand – Britain and Africa  Expansion of colonialism – Americas  Characteristics of the “plantation complex” o Previous slides th  Mid-18 century SUGAR PLANTATIONS  Voltair, Candide (1759) “It’s at this price that you eat sugar in Europe” (an arm and a leg)  British West Indies Slave Imports – Jamaica was initially the most profitable British colony; sugar plantations started big (no small industry to get started – all in from the beginning); Haiti (originally St. Domingue) was taken over by th the French and slave imports sky-rocketed by the mid-18 century, it became the most profitable colony (not just in the French areas of occupation)  In the 18 century, Brazil’s economy became diversified  demand for slaves not in the sugar sector; there were many different enterprises (one of which was sugar in the N.E.); in the S.E. of Brazil gold and diamonds were discovered and giant mining operations were established o Brazil also had urban slavery in the N.E. and S.E. regional trade centers in cities – required all types of jobs (particularly hauling goods)  led to diversification of slave society; Brazil had the largest concentration of salves in America at the time  To this day, #1 Nigeria and #2 Brazil for population of African descendants o Differences in cities – might have been considered societies with slaves in the city areas; slaves did have more autonomy, were more creolized in skills, and there was a more mixed labor force  1700s imports: expansion in America  Georgia & South Carolina from Barbados, especially to Charleston (late 1600s) rice became the cash crop in early 1700s and African slaves were brought in around this time o “The Black Rice” Theory: reason for cultivation of rice is technical knowhow of Africans; they needed food in order to evade starvation so…they grew rice and THEN harvesting rice became a larger venture o Slave Societies vs. Societies with Slaves (previous slides)  Plantation Complex Characteristics – less autonomy, more supervision of labor; less mobility, fewer prospects for manumission (% goes way down); more specific skill sets are developed  specialized labor o People who worked in sugar plantations had to cut the cane by day and boil and crush it by night  this led to very unsafe working conditions and the accident rate was very high as well as the mortality rate  There was always a demand for more African labor to be imported  Slave holders had no incentive to keep slaves alive past the one year point because by then a slave had produced his own worth in sugar  Charter vs. Plantation Generations: o Charter Generations – varied types of work, mixed labor forces, relative autonomy, higher manumission rates, relatively greater numbers of Atlantic creoles, generally considered societies with slaves o Plantation Generations – greater importance of plantations, especially sugar, plantation labor forces = slave = black, less autonomy – life is much more rigidly controlled, in the US, there were lower rates of manumission and relatively fewer Atlantic creoles, these were generally considered slave societies  In the 18 century, black slaves greatly outnumbered whites in the population so whites are obsessed with their security and the way that they prevented resistance was to instill fear, torture, and employ rife and horrific violence Culture and Resistance in the “Charter Generation” I. Review Charter Generation II. Maroons a. General features b. Palmares in Brazil c. A quick example from Brazil III. Resistance in early VA a. In general b. Bacon’s Rebellion IV. Conclusions Recap: “charter” generations of slavery occurred at varying times depending on when plantation complex was established (16 century Brazil, later 17 /early 18 th TH centuries in US, NS 17 century Barbados  Greater opportunities for freedom; variety of jobs; mixed work forces; more class fluidity; more autonomy; many Atlantic creoles o Also greater opportunity for successful resistance  How did people resist? o Run; work slowly or don’t work; break tools; sabatoge; steal (especially food); feigned ignorance  poisoned masters or instigated outright revolts o Commonly slaves would run away temporarily to visit friends or relatives on other plantations or they would run away without the intention of coming back..  Maroons: Cimmaron (Spanish origins): stray calf or other herd animal that reverted to the wild; they formed their own communities  Quilombo (Brazil); Palenque (Spanish Americas) terms referred to these communities; could be small or HUGE; went to areas where there weren’t people or areas that were already inhabited by native peoples o By the mid-1600s, there were 100s of communities in Americas  Common Features of Maroon Communities: o Systems of defense were VERY IMPORTANT to have  they harbored a necessary obsession with defense o Composed of people born in Africa and America and even in the Maroon society o Some farming; mostly RAIDING  they also traded with Native Americans and colonists whenever possible (clothes and whatever crops they could produce) o Religions – consisted of African religious practices mixed with Christianity  Maroon Community (most long-lasting and dramatic; lasted about 90 years) PALMARES o Kilombo/quilombo o Imbangala o More like an independent states with provinces there were ten different villages with a capital o 30,000 inhabitants; in Brazil; formed by runaways o “Angola Janga” – “Little Angola” o Ganga Zumba = king/leader/”great lord” o Macaco – Capital o Organized like a West Central African kingdom in Brazil; mixed Catholicism with African religious traditions o Colonial officials felt VERY threatened  Portuguese officials mounted a number of expeditions; many times they were unsuccessful  On one raid, the Portuguese captured a baby who was raised by a priest and later ran away back to Palmares where he became a military chief “Zumbi”  Peace Treaty was finally arranged  people of Palmares would be left alone but they were required to move closer to the provincial capital o Faction led by Zumbi overthrew and killed the king; Zumbi became king and the people did not end up moving closer to the capital  “Domingos Jorge Velho” – of Brazil; lived on colonial outskirts; recruited to lead an army of 3,000 people to fight Palmares in 1693 the people were protected by location on a Cliffside that provided natural defense; they also made a fence and pits with sharp stakes at the bottoms  Brazilians couldn’t just attack Palmares so they formed a perimeter around its border and besieged it, waiting for the people within to starve to death; they waited for 44 days before a battle occurred in which many many people died (1694)  Zumbi was captured and killed o 300 years later, Zumbi’s Day became a celebration  Zumbi seen as a Brazilian hero o Final point: the people of Palmares stole slaves as well when they went on raids = this serves as a reminder that slavery was not seen as the evil institution we know it to be today  Jamaican communities (also very well-known) – made peace treaties with British in the 1730s after many years of attacks; British would stop attacking if maroons became reserved military source and agreed to come to the aid of the British in the event of an insurrection or revolt  Devthopments in VA: colonial VA; How do you think enslaved peoples in the 17 century VA resisted their communities? o Implies negroes are not necessarily slaves and that white and black people ran away together  The Great Dismal Swamp: o Haven for runaways; African slaves and white indentured servants ran together o Series of Colonial Laws  1662 – clarifies that condition of mother determines status of the child law is trying to stop “inter-mingling” between English men and Negro women but also vice versa  Bacon’s Rebellion: (VA 1676) o V. Governor William Berkeley; Bacon amassed followers (people with many different greivances); available land was becoming scarce; the 1670 House of Burgesses disenfranchised all landholders who they deemed to be troublemakers; Indians attacked after settlers encroached Berkeley wanted to fortify the “pale civilization” (civilized vs. uncivilized) and raised the taxes to pay for it this led to resentment and unsettle amongst the settlers o Bacon was refused military permission to fight the Indias and this sparked the rebellion (about 1,000 followers government put down the rebellion and followers either dispersed or were killed  After this point, there was even more legislation to separate poor whites from black slaves o In 1682, law said that if you are not Christian, then you are deemed a slave – non-Christian servant = slave; even blacks who are Christians are accounted to be slaves regardless of conversion (1705 piece of legislation)


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