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Biology 131

by: Elisha Hanson

Biology 131 Bio 131

Elisha Hanson
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General notes from class, a little more detailed.
Class Notes




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisha Hanson on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 131 at Lake Superior State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see in Biology at Lake Superior State University.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Biology notes Biotic = living Abiotic = non-living Chrematistics of living organism Spontaneous generation Scientific Method - 1. Observation = question? - 2. Question = tentative answer (hypothesis) - 3. Hypothesis = more observation (does hypothesis hold) - 4a. yes: Accept hypothesis - 4b. No: Foundation, you go back and look Biology is the most complexity - Animals don’t behave like people Mitochondria = energy - Endosymbiont’s Metabolic theory of cancer - War bug effect - Cancer cells o Damaged or lack mitochondria o Consume glucose o Ferment even when oxygen is available How did we get here? - A). cyanobacteria are some of Earth’s oldest life forms - B) Stromatolites are ancient structures formed by the layering of cyanobacteria in shallow water Life had limits - 0 degrees = many organisms can’t survive/ Ice - 50degrees = many animals can be active - 100 degrees = many animals cannot be active at this temperature. / water will disappear - 37 degrees= is human’s temperature range. / body temp. - Earth is mostly just water. - Planets close to the sun don’t have must water. But planets that are further out have water but it’s probably frozen. - Ancient records say we are more unique then we think about 400,000 years ago Seven tablets of creation = Enuma Elish How do we know this? - Is there evidence Origin of life - Still don’t know - Life as we know it on earth may be very unique in the universe - Lots of water and high UV radiation - Highly diverse - Chemical evolution to biological evolution Cell = First living organism - Need water/ need temp. Frist life? - Lipid membrane allowed enclosure of molecules of life. - Controlled chemical environment - Nutrients / energy obtained from environment - Cells – can be big, small - Bacteria cells are small Photosynthesis - Cells gained the ability to harness the sun’s energy - Evidence? Cells take in carbon, oxygen, and water - Oxygen - Bonded iron (oxidation) - Chlorophyll (green pigments) - Photosynthesis bacteria have extensive internal mechanisms Increasing Genome complexity - Origin of like (2), origin of earth (1) - Bacteria (3) - Photosynthetic bacteria (4) - Eukaryotes (5) - Camerian explosion (6) - Multicellular animals and plants (7) Evolution - Life: a chemical system that can evolve - Simple cells: (prokaryotes) become more complex (eukaryotes) with organelles (endosymbionts) Phylogenetic tree of life - Bacteria, archaea, Euskara - Constructed from sequencing ribosomes RNA genes - Three ribosomes: bacteria, archaea, Eukarya Common Ancestry of life - Evidence - All organism shares similar chemistry - Genetic How did it all start - Need self-replacing / replicating molecule that can store information - Recipe/ blue print of living organisms - Origin? Chemical evolution Levels of organization of life - Single organelles to the entire biosphere - Living organisms are parts of a highly structured hierarchy - Cell > tissues > organ > organisms > ecosystem > biosphere - Ecosystem has to have flowing energy through all the systems and cycles Chemistry Atom to organisms The organization of matter - Living organisms o Composed of 25 very elements - Elements are composed of atoms o Combined to form molecules - All organism o Are collection of atom and molecules o Linked together by chemical bonds Elements - 92 different elements occur naturally on earth - 15 artificial elements - Pure substance o Cannot be broken down into simpler substances Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass Atoms - Smallest unit that requires the chemical and physical properties of an element o Identified by a symbol  Protons +  Electrons –  Neutrons 0 Atomic number - Carbon has an atomic number of 6, and 2 stable isotopes with mass numbers of 12 and 13 respectively - Its atomic mass is 12.11 Atomic structure - All atoms consist of some basic structure o Nucleus o Surrounded by one of more elements Electrons - May occupy more than 99.99% of the space Nucleus - Makes up more than 99.9% of the total mass - Matter is mostly empty space Nucleus of an atom - Contains protons and neutrons - Protons o Positivity charged particles in nucleus of all atoms o Number of protons > the atomic number - Hydrogen o One proton in its nucleus (atomic number 1) - Uranium o 92 protons in its nucleus (atomic number 92) o Heaviest naturally occurring element Electrons - Neural atom o Electrons surrounding the nucleus o Equals the number of protons in the nucleus - Electrons move very fast around a nucleus o Approach the speed of light - Elements, such as helium, depicted here, are made up of atoms - Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, located within the nucleus - Electron are in orbitals surrounding the nucleus Orbital - Regions are the nucleus o Whereas electron spend most of their time - Most orbitals contain two or more electrons o For balance - Occur in layers around on atomic nucleus o Energy levels or shells - Electrons exist within principal shells, normally in the lowest energy shell available the one closets to the nucleus Bohr diagrams - Indicate how many electrons fill each principal shell - Helium, neon, and argon have a full outer shell the most stable electron configuration - Elements in other group 5 have partitilly filler outer / valence shells gain or lose electrons to achieve a stable electron Periodic table - Shows the atomic mass and atomic number of each element Chemical bonds - Atoms that have a unstable configuration o Tend to share electrons o Join orbital with other atoms o Reach a stable configuration - Oxygen and nitrogen o Tend to share electrons with other atoms o i.e. create bonds to form molecules - bonds important for biological systems o ionic bonds o covalent bonds o hydrogen bonds o Van der Waals forces Ionic bonds - Between atoms that loss or gain valance electrons - Forming a positive or negative ion - Sodium can give up electron to be “+1” o Called a cation (positive) - Chlorine can take an electron to become a “-1” o Called an anion (negative) - Difference in charge o Caused the two ions to attract to each other o Formed an ionic bond - Formation of an ionic compound, metals lose electrons and non-metals gain electrons to achieve an octet. Covalent bonds - Formed by electrons in shared orbitals - Electrons are shared to fill valance shells - Hydrogen (H2) o Each atom has one electron in the outer shell o Share to make two electrons in the shell o Fills the valance shell o H:H or H-H Electro – negativity - Atoms attraction for an electron o Electron is shared in a chemical bond - Atoms vary in electro-negativity o Shared electrons differently - Unequal electrons sharing results in polarity o Non-polar bonds share electrons equally o Polar covalent bonds share electrons equally  Part of the molecule have a particle charge Polar molecules - Associate with each other - Exclude non- polar molecules - Hydrophilic (water – preferring) Non-polar molecules - Don’t associate with polar molecules - Hydrophobic (water – avoiding) - Ex. Mix water (polar) and vegetable oil (non-polar) - Let rest, and the two will separate - Oil and water don’t mix - Oil is a non-polar compound doesn’t dissolve in water but forms droplets instead Hydrogen bond - Involved unequal electron sharing - Hydrogen atoms - Partially positive by unequal sharing with atoms - Weak positive charges o Attract weak negative charges on other molecules o Form weak hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonding make ice less dense then liquid water a. Lattice structure of ice make it less dense then molecules of liquid water b. Ice float on water Role of Hydrogen bonds - Maintain 3-D stability of large molecules - Hydrogen bonds o Weak compared to ionic or covalent bonds o Weak bonds start breaking at 45 degrees C.  Non-existent at 100 degrees C. Water is a very unique molecule -high specific heat - Universal solvent -high surface tension - what makes water so special? - polar nature / hydrogen bonds Importance of water to life - Polar molecule (electro – neg. of oxygen) o Hydrogen bonds - Versatile solvent o Dissolve charged molecules o Increases like hood of chemical reactions - Expands as solid (ice floats) - High specific heat o Protects molecules from extreme temperature change o Acid – base PH - Buffering of blood PH levels - Blue arrow: process so raisin PH as more Co2 is make - Purple Arrows: the lowering of pH as more bicarbonate is created Van der Waal forces - Weak attractions over very short distances - Electrons accumulate in one part of a molecule o Create polar molecule - Example: Geckos walk up a vertical surface - Toes are covered with millions of setae - With thousands of toe pads - Interact with surface molecules - Allows geckos to walk up walls - Gecko tape Macromolecules Alkali metals = Gray H = Hydrogen Li = Lithium Na = sodium K = Potassium Rb = Rubidium Cs= Cesium Fr=Francium Alkaline Earth Metals = Green Be = Beryllium Mg = Magnesium Ca = Calcium Sr = strontium Ba = Barium Ra = Radium Transitional Metals = yellow Other metals = pink Noble gases = orange Ex. Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon Blue = non – metals Ex. Boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluoride, silicon, phosphorus Carbon - Methane (CH4) o Tetrahedral (single Bond) - Ethane (C2H6) o Tetrahedral (single Bond) - Ethane (C2H6) o Planar (double bond) - Carbon forms single bonds with other atoms, the shape is tetrahedral - Two carbon atoms form a double bond, the shape is planar, or flat - Single bonds, those found in ethane, cannot rotate the atoms on either side are located in place Function groups - Relative portions of molecules o Give compounds their properties - Amino acids o Amino groups o Acid groups -functional groups are found in many different biological molecules Main types of biological molecules Polymers; chain of monomer residues that is linker by covalent bonds - Carbohydrates - Lipids - Proteins - Nucleic acids Making and breaking polymers - Condensation (Dehydration) o Removal of OH and H to form H20 o Sub units join to form a larger molecule - Hydrolysis o Uses water to place and OH and H on molecules o Molecules are split into smaller units - Carbohydrates o Most abundance biological molecules major chemical fuel energy for cells o Stored as  Starch in plants  Glycogen in animals - Structural compounds o Chains of carbohydrates o E.g., cellulose -Monosaccharides - glucose (C6H12O6) Disaccharides - Two monosaccharides - Sucrose Polysaccharides - More than ten monosaccharides Monosaccharides - Sub -unit of carbohydrates - Water -soluble and sweet Pentose’s - 5 carbon Hexoses - 6 carbon Disaccharides - Condensation synthesis from two monosaccharides maltose - From 2 a glucose - 1-4 glyosidic bonds - Oxygen bridge between c-1 or one glucose and c- 4 of second Sucrose - One glucose and one fructose - Most common in nature - Formed when monomer of glucose and a monomer of fructose are joined in a dehydration reaction to form a glyosidic bond - In the process, a water molecule is lost Lactose - One glucose and one galactose - Milk sugar - Dehydration synthesis reaction - Two molecules of glucose are linked together to form the dissacrrades maltose - A water molecule is formed Common disaccharides - Maltose – grain sugar - Lactose – milk sugar - Sucrose – table sugar Polysaccrides - Polymers from monomers plant starch o Amylose liner (unbranched) o Some plant starch is branched Animal starch - Glycogen (highly branched) Energy storage molecules - Easily broken down to release glucose Starch - Helical structure - Amylose is composed of unbranched chains of glucose monomers connected by a 1, 4, glyosidic linkages - Amylopectin is composed of branched chains glucose monomers connected by a 1, 4 and a 1,6 glyosidic linkages - Glycogen (not shown) is similar in structure to amylopectin but more highly branched Cellulose - Structural polysaccharides found in plants - Strong and tough - Glucose monomers are linked in unbranched chains by beta 1-4 glucosides linkages - Every glucose monomer is flipped relative to the next one resulting in a linear, fibrous structure. Chitin - Structural polysaccharides found in exoskeletons of insects, crabs and some fungi - Not easily degraded Insects have a hand outer exoskeleton made of chitin, type of polysaccharides - Lipids (fats and oils) o Water insoluble, non – polar  Mostly hydrocarbon - Dissolve in non- polar solvents o Acetone and chloroform o Lipids solubility varies o Form cell membranes o Energy storage o Hormone Glycerol and Triglycerides - Glycerol o 3 C Molecules with 3 hydroxyl groups - Fatty acids o Three for triglycericle o More saturated, the less fluidity o Shorter chains liquid at lower temperatures - Saturated fatty acids o Have hydrocarbon chains connected by single bonds only - Unsaturated fatty acids o Have one or more double bonds - Phospholipids o Phosphate head  Hydrophilic - Fatty acids o Hydrophobic - Amphipathic o Biological membranes  Form bilayers The phospholipid bilayer: is the major component of all cellular membranes The Hydrophilic head groups: of the phospholipids face the aqueous solution. The hydrophobic tails are sequested in the middle of the bilayer Steroids – cholesterol and cortisol are composed of four fused hydrocarbon rings Hydrophobic lipids – in the fur of aquatic animals, mammals, such as the river otter, protect them from the elements. - Example: waxy coverings on some leaves are made of lipids


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