Chapter 5 CJUS 2100
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Chapter 5 Criminal Justice Police Organization based on Bureaucracy Hierarchy structured administration organization carries out speci c functions Organization in uenced by environment Jurisdiction size 0 Types of crime 0 Population demographics Chain of Command 0 Clear rank structure and strict accountability quotTop downquot chain of command Delegation 0 Personnel take orders from and are responsible to those in position of power directly above them Organizing by Area and Time Law Enforcement in the Field 0 Ef cient organization of eld services 0 Patrol Investigations and special operations Patrol is one of the main functions of police Every department has a patrol unit Usually the largest division of the department Purpose of Patrol Deter crime by maintaining a visible presence 0 Maintenance of public order and a sense of security 0 24 hour provision of services that are not crimerelated Four Categories of Patrol 0 Preventive Patrol 0 Maintain presence in community 40 of patrol time 0 Calls for service 0 Responding to calls 25 of patrol time 0 Administrative duties 0 Paperwork 20 of patrol time Of cerinitiated activities 0 Of cerinitiated interactions with citizens 15 of patrol time Investigative is the second main function of police Investigative work is reactive Detective Primary police investigator of crime Promoted from patrol of cer 0 O 0 Not quite as glamorous as portrayed by the media 0 Spend most of their time investigating property crimes Undercover Operations Agent assumes false identity Commonly used to in ltrate largescale narcotics operations or organization Most dangerous and controversial Often use a con dential informant 0 Person involved with criminal activity and provides information to police 0 Used when an agency doesn39t want to risk of cer to undercover work or when outsider cant in ltrate an organized crime network Goal of law enforcement is to clear cases which means secure the arrest and prosecution of the offender Clearance Rate Comparison of the number of crimes cleared by arrest and prosecution with the number of crime reported during any given time period 0 In 2012 47 of violent crimes were solved 0 In 2012 19 of property crimes were solved Low clearance rates cause cold cases Criminal investigation has not been solved after a certain amount of time Even with new technology only 1 in 20 cold cases result in arrest and only 1 in 100 result in a conviction Forensic Investigations and DNA 0 Of cers rer on experts in forensics to help solve cases Forensic experts determine 0 Cause of death 0 Time of death 0 Type of weapon used 0 Identity of the crime victim 0 Identity of the offender Crime scene forensics 0 Very important to secure and protect trace evidence from contamination Trace evidence is evidence such as a ngerprint blood or hair found in small amounts at a crime scene 0 Ballistics is the study of rearms including the ring of the weapon and the ight of the bullet The DNA Revolution DNA Fingerprinting Emerged in the mid19905 Identifying a person based on a sample of his or her DNA Labs can create a DNA pro le of the suspect and test it against suspects A match can be as conclusive as 30 billion to one DNA greatly increases the chances that a crime will be solved Databases and cold hits 0 When law enforcement nds a suspect quotout of nowherequot by comparing DNA evidence from a crime scene against the DNA database New Developments Combined DNA Index System CODIS Touch DNA Familial searches Genetic witnesses Police Strategies What Works 0 Operational basis of police work is incidentdriven o Reactive approach that emphasizes a speedy response to calls for service 0 Response time and ef ciency 0 Time elapsed between the call for service and when the police arrive Improving response time ef ciency 0 Response time is not as critical as response time for the most important calls 0 Introduction of 311 nonemergency call system 0 Differential response Answering calls for service that are the most serious most quickly 0 Next generation 911 0 Better technology 0 Random Patrol 0 Relies on police of cers monitoring a certain area with the goal of detecting crimes in progress or preventing crime due to their presence 0 Testing Random Patrol 0 Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment in the 19705 found that preventive patrol had no impact 0 Random patrols are important for maintain community relations Reduce fear of crime Directed Patrol 0 Focus on speci c type of criminal activity at a speci c time Predictive Policing and Crime Mapping 0 Finding quotHot Spotsquot Hot spots are concentrated areas of high criminal activity that draw a directed police response Crime mapping is technology that allows crime analysts to identify trends and patters of criminal behavior within a given area 0 The Rise of CompStat Computerized mapping launched in New York Meetings are held to evaluate the data Provides police with information about patterns of crime and gives them the ability to dispatch needed of cers to the hot spots Arrest Strategies 0 Reactive arrests arrests made by police who observe a criminal act or respond to a call for service 0 Proactive arrests when police take the initiative to target a particular type of criminal or behavior 0 Quality of Life Crimes Broken windows theory believes that a neighborhood in disrepair signals that criminal activity is tolerated in the area By cracking down on quality of life crimes police can reclaim the neighborhood 0 The Broken Widows Effect Continues to in uence proactive police strategy 0 Community policing is a philosophy that emphasizes community support for and cooperation with the police in preventing crime 0 Return to the Community Promotes community partnerships Proactive problem solving Community engagement 0 The Quiet Revolution Nearly 23 of police departments mention community policing in their mission statements Popular among law enforcement of cers Problem Oriented Policing ProblemOriented Policing 0 Philosophy that requires police to identify potential criminal activity and develop strategies to prevent or respond to that activity o Attempt to control or even solve the root causes of criminal behavior 0 Encourages police of cers to stop looking at their work as daytoday propositions 0 One quothot spotsquot have been identi ed additional police actions should be taken to prevent future crime quotUs versus Themquot Issues in Modern Policing Police Subculture o The values and perceptions that are shared by members of a police department 0 These values permeate agencies and are taught to new of cers through a process of socialization Rookies begin the process of socialization from the rst day on thejob o Socialization is the process through which of cers are taught the values and expected behavior of the police subculture The core values of police subculture 0 Danger stress boredom and violence Police Subculture Rituals to a police of cer39s acceptance 0 Attending a police academy 0 Working with a senior of cer 0 Making the initial felony arrest 0 Using force for the rst time 0 Using or witnessing deadly force for the rst time o Witnessing major traumatic incident of the rst time Blue curtain 0 Used to refer to the value placed on secrecy and the general mistrust of the outside world shared by many police of cers quotUs versus Themquot Issues in Modern Policing The Physical Dangers of Police Work 0 Police come into contact with citizens 40 million times per year Have relatively low death rates and injury 0 Stress and Mental Danger of Police Work 0 Police stressors Aspects of police work and life that leads to feelings of stress 0 Consequences of Police Stress 0 Burnout mental state that occurs when a person suffers from exhaustion and has dif culty functioning normally as a result of overwork and stress 0 PTSD Authority and the Use of Force 0 Use of Force in law Enforcement 0 The use of force is rare 0 Occurs in only 14 of policepublic encounters 0 Use of force matrix presents of cers with the proper force options for different levels of contact 0 Types of Force 0 Reasonable force Nondeadly force The degree of force that is appropriate to protect the police of cer or other citizens and not excessive 0 Deadly force Force applied by a police of cer that is likely or intended to cause death 0 The United States Supreme Court and Use of Force 0 Tennessee v Garner 1985 under the fourth amendment when a law enforcement of cer is pursuing a eeing suspect he or she may not use deadly force to prevent escape unless the of cer has probably cause to believe that the suspect poses a signi cant threat of death or serious physical injury to the of cer or others 0 Graham v Conner 1989 an objective reasonableness standard should apply to a free citizen s claim that law enforcement of cials used excessive force in the course of making an arrest investigatory stop or other quotseizurequot of his person 0 Ethical dilemmas are de ned as a situation in which law enforcement of cers 0 Do not know the right course of action 0 Have dif culty doing what they consider to be right andor 0 Find the wrong choice very tempting Elements of Ethics 0 Noble Cause Corruption Knowing misconduct by a police of cer with the goal of attaining what the of cer believes is a quotjustquot result 0 Four categories of in which ethical dilemmas often emerge Chapter 6 Discretion Duty moral or legal obligation Honesty Loyalty The Fourth Amendment 0 The fourth amendment contains two critical legal concepts 0 O Prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures The requirement of probable cause to issue a warrantmake an arrest Reasonableness O 0000 Relative term indicating logic practicality sensibility intelligence and plausibility Police must be reasonable when conducting a search or seizure Ultimately the term quotreasonablequot is different in each case No speci c meaning for this term exists that applies to all case law The concept of reasonableness is linked to probable cause Reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts warranting certain actions Sources of Probable Cause 0 Personal Observation 0 Personal training observation and expertise of police of cer 0 Information 0 Received from others must be believed to be reliable Evidence 0 Police can derive probably cause based on evidence for example in plain view 0 Association 0 0 Known criminal in place where criminal activity is openly taking place Generally not adequate to establish probable cause
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