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World History II: Imperialism and Origins of WWI

by: Morgan Holt

World History II: Imperialism and Origins of WWI HIST 1020 -012

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 -012 > World History II Imperialism and Origins of WWI
Morgan Holt
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Covers Imperialism in India and Africa along with the time period leading up to and including the beginning of World War I.
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
world, history, II, 2, Imperialism, India, Africa, Origins, War, i, great, franz, ferdinand, bosnia, herzegovina, serbia
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Imperialism II: India and Africa I. India: known in Britain as the “Jewel in the Crown”; relationship started in the 17  century,  th but escalated in the 19 . A. East India Company: Joint stock Company that was royally chartered and traded with the  East Indies. At the time, India was ruled by the Mughals, who allowed the East India  Company in and even let them build forts around their trading ports on the coast. India  became a middleman between Britain and China. The Mughal emperors begin to weaken, and local princes grow stronger, creating a vacuum that allowed Britain in. B. Sepoy Revolt (1857): final straw that allowed Britain to take over. East India Company  had created an army with British officers and Indian foot soldiers, called Sepoys. British  officers told Indian soldiers to use a cartridge coated in animal fat. To load their guns,  they were trained to tear the exterior paper off with their teeth. Indian soldiers were  vegetarian and found this repulsive; resulted in an uprising. Took the British a year to put the revolt down. Hundreds of thousands of people died. Caused the British government to clamp down on India; instead of more loosely influencing India, they took direct control  of India’s government. C. British reforms and the Raj: the Raj was the government Britain set up in India. The  higher members of the government were British, while some of the lower roles were  filled by Indians. Queen Victoria was named Empress of India in 1877. British wanted to  control trade in India; they sent a lot of opium into china and encouraged India to grow it  as a cash crop. China eventually went to war with Britain over it, and Britain won,  forcing China to open its borders.  II. Impact of British Rule A. Western Education: introduced in India; promoted education and allowed them to  professionally function in International society. Only affected wealthy/nobles. B. Railroads C. Banking and mining: benefitted economy D. Landholdings: went from society in which land was held by the village; belonged to  someone, but used by the village collectively. British encouraged production of tea,  coffee, and opium that led to wealthy landowning Indians. Peasants were driven off the  land and into cities to look for work. E. Textile industries: India had proud tradition of producing printed cloth. British produced  cheap cloth that they dumped in India. Destroyed Indian hand­crafting industry. F. Caste system: British policies made the caste system more rigid. Destroyed fluidity in  Indian castes that had been developing because of subcastes by ignoring these subcastes. G. Poverty: India was left very poor by the end of British rule. III. Africa A. The scramble: begins with Berlin conference, a meeting of major European powers to  decide how they were going to go about partitioning Africa. B. Treaties: Europeans had to seek treaties with local African rulers to offer protection in  exchange for the economic rewards the Europeans were receiving. C. Military advantages: when the Africans resisted, they didn’t stand a chance against the  European military might. D. Boer War: Major conflict between European powers in South Africa. In the 17  century,  the Dutch moved in. Were known as Boers, spoke Africaans and were also called  Africaners. In 1790 the British took the Netherlands (Dutch) from the French. The British start moving into South Africa. The Boers start moving north, further inland, to escape  the British in the Great Trek to the Orange Free State. In this land they discover  diamonds and gold, and the British want in, Cecil Rhodes in particular. Becomes basis  for war between British and Boers. Lasted 3 years. British won, but gave Boers a degree  of control in the Union of South Africa. IV.Africa under European Rule: Belgian Congo A. Acquisition: King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley to make hundreds of different  “protection treaties” with local African rulers. The Congo became his personal colony  (NOT Belgium’s) B. Regime of Terror: during this time period, Leopold used extreme violence to subdue the  people. He created an army called the Force Publique (FP) that had European officers and foot soldiers from African tribes that were known for terrorizing other tribes. People were killed, maimed, and raped for resisting Leopold’s policies. C. Forced Labor: wanted rubber and ivory; forced people to work, would often torment the  families of people that refused to work; often cut off hand(s) of children. D. Opposition in Europe: Edmund Morel was an office worker in Liverpool, England, and  was also a journalist. Noticed ships would come in with rubber and leave with guns, so he grew suspicious and began to investigate. Eventually raised the attention of Parliament.  Joseph Conrad wrote a novel, Heart of Darkness, about the time. Decades had passed, but European powers finally forced Leopold to moderate his policies. Origins of World War I I. Nationalism: Major force in Europe; promoted conflict A. Multi­national empires: Ottoman Empire, Russia, and in particular Austria­Hungary  (ruled by the Habsburg family). Large empires controlled nations that felt nationalistic, in particular the Serbs. B. Balkans (Serbia and Bosnia­Herzegovina): a loose geographical area that for centuries  had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire, which had been slowly dying. There  was a wide variety of different peoples with different religions who were slowly  becoming their own nations, including Serbia. Not all Serbs lived in Serbia; many lived  in Bosnia­Herzegovina, part of the Austro­Hungarian Empire, and Serbia wanted to bring them in so all the Serbs would be together. II. Diplomacy A. Bismarckian system: designed b Otto von Bismarck; knew a united Germany made much of the rest of Europe unhappy; designed a system of diplomatic alliances to make  Germany seem like a peacemakers, starting by allying Germany with Austria­Hungary,  Russia, and Italy. Included al major continental European powers except France. Decided not to bother with Britain. B. Realignments: Bismarck fell from power in 1890, and his successors didn’t renew the  alliance with Russia. France rushed in to ally with Russia. Germany, realizing they made  a mistake, tries to ally with Britain. Britain was suspicious, especially since Germany had been building a strong navy, so Britain allies with Russia and France instead. a. Triple Alliance: The remains of the Bismarckian system (Germany, Italy, and  Austria­Hungary) b. Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia c. Fairly evenly split Europe’s major powers. Set up for a huge conflict. III. Arms Race A. Industrialization had begun an arms race, a competition to stockpile weapons. Once one  of the powers begins to mobilize thinking it would make the other powers back down  would backfire and create a huge conflict. IV.Balkans Turmoil A. Bosnia­Herzegovina was developing strong nationalistic desires, encouraged by Serbia.  Hostilities were high between Serbia and Austria­Hungary. B. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand: June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the  Austro­Hungarian throne, visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, to attempt to keep the  peace and improve quality of life in Bosnia. Someone climbed the side of the car and  killed both the archduke and his wife. C. Austrian ultimatum: Austria blamed Serbia; demanded an apology, insisted they be  allowed to search Serbia for the assassin, which Serbia refused, thinking it violated their  sovereignty. D. Austria­Hungary declared war on Serbia July 28. The next day Russia mobilizes against  Austria­Hungary because they didn’t want Serbia to be taken over. Two days later,  Germany sends an ultimatum to Russia to back down. Within two weeks, all of the major  powers in Europe had declared war to back their allies, all of them believing that the  conflict would be over in a matter of weeks. 


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