World History II: Imperialism and Origins of WWI
World History II: Imperialism and Origins of WWI HIST 1020 -012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Imperialism II: India and Africa I. India: known in Britain as the “Jewel in the Crown”; relationship started in the 17 century, th but escalated in the 19 . A. East India Company: Joint stock Company that was royally chartered and traded with the East Indies. At the time, India was ruled by the Mughals, who allowed the East India Company in and even let them build forts around their trading ports on the coast. India became a middleman between Britain and China. The Mughal emperors begin to weaken, and local princes grow stronger, creating a vacuum that allowed Britain in. B. Sepoy Revolt (1857): final straw that allowed Britain to take over. East India Company had created an army with British officers and Indian foot soldiers, called Sepoys. British officers told Indian soldiers to use a cartridge coated in animal fat. To load their guns, they were trained to tear the exterior paper off with their teeth. Indian soldiers were vegetarian and found this repulsive; resulted in an uprising. Took the British a year to put the revolt down. Hundreds of thousands of people died. Caused the British government to clamp down on India; instead of more loosely influencing India, they took direct control of India’s government. C. British reforms and the Raj: the Raj was the government Britain set up in India. The higher members of the government were British, while some of the lower roles were filled by Indians. Queen Victoria was named Empress of India in 1877. British wanted to control trade in India; they sent a lot of opium into china and encouraged India to grow it as a cash crop. China eventually went to war with Britain over it, and Britain won, forcing China to open its borders. II. Impact of British Rule A. Western Education: introduced in India; promoted education and allowed them to professionally function in International society. Only affected wealthy/nobles. B. Railroads C. Banking and mining: benefitted economy D. Landholdings: went from society in which land was held by the village; belonged to someone, but used by the village collectively. British encouraged production of tea, coffee, and opium that led to wealthy landowning Indians. Peasants were driven off the land and into cities to look for work. E. Textile industries: India had proud tradition of producing printed cloth. British produced cheap cloth that they dumped in India. Destroyed Indian handcrafting industry. F. Caste system: British policies made the caste system more rigid. Destroyed fluidity in Indian castes that had been developing because of subcastes by ignoring these subcastes. G. Poverty: India was left very poor by the end of British rule. III. Africa A. The scramble: begins with Berlin conference, a meeting of major European powers to decide how they were going to go about partitioning Africa. B. Treaties: Europeans had to seek treaties with local African rulers to offer protection in exchange for the economic rewards the Europeans were receiving. C. Military advantages: when the Africans resisted, they didn’t stand a chance against the European military might. D. Boer War: Major conflict between European powers in South Africa. In the 17 century, the Dutch moved in. Were known as Boers, spoke Africaans and were also called Africaners. In 1790 the British took the Netherlands (Dutch) from the French. The British start moving into South Africa. The Boers start moving north, further inland, to escape the British in the Great Trek to the Orange Free State. In this land they discover diamonds and gold, and the British want in, Cecil Rhodes in particular. Becomes basis for war between British and Boers. Lasted 3 years. British won, but gave Boers a degree of control in the Union of South Africa. IV.Africa under European Rule: Belgian Congo A. Acquisition: King Leopold II of Belgium hired Stanley to make hundreds of different “protection treaties” with local African rulers. The Congo became his personal colony (NOT Belgium’s) B. Regime of Terror: during this time period, Leopold used extreme violence to subdue the people. He created an army called the Force Publique (FP) that had European officers and foot soldiers from African tribes that were known for terrorizing other tribes. People were killed, maimed, and raped for resisting Leopold’s policies. C. Forced Labor: wanted rubber and ivory; forced people to work, would often torment the families of people that refused to work; often cut off hand(s) of children. D. Opposition in Europe: Edmund Morel was an office worker in Liverpool, England, and was also a journalist. Noticed ships would come in with rubber and leave with guns, so he grew suspicious and began to investigate. Eventually raised the attention of Parliament. Joseph Conrad wrote a novel, Heart of Darkness, about the time. Decades had passed, but European powers finally forced Leopold to moderate his policies. Origins of World War I I. Nationalism: Major force in Europe; promoted conflict A. Multinational empires: Ottoman Empire, Russia, and in particular AustriaHungary (ruled by the Habsburg family). Large empires controlled nations that felt nationalistic, in particular the Serbs. B. Balkans (Serbia and BosniaHerzegovina): a loose geographical area that for centuries had been under the control of the Ottoman Empire, which had been slowly dying. There was a wide variety of different peoples with different religions who were slowly becoming their own nations, including Serbia. Not all Serbs lived in Serbia; many lived in BosniaHerzegovina, part of the AustroHungarian Empire, and Serbia wanted to bring them in so all the Serbs would be together. II. Diplomacy A. Bismarckian system: designed b Otto von Bismarck; knew a united Germany made much of the rest of Europe unhappy; designed a system of diplomatic alliances to make Germany seem like a peacemakers, starting by allying Germany with AustriaHungary, Russia, and Italy. Included al major continental European powers except France. Decided not to bother with Britain. B. Realignments: Bismarck fell from power in 1890, and his successors didn’t renew the alliance with Russia. France rushed in to ally with Russia. Germany, realizing they made a mistake, tries to ally with Britain. Britain was suspicious, especially since Germany had been building a strong navy, so Britain allies with Russia and France instead. a. Triple Alliance: The remains of the Bismarckian system (Germany, Italy, and AustriaHungary) b. Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia c. Fairly evenly split Europe’s major powers. Set up for a huge conflict. III. Arms Race A. Industrialization had begun an arms race, a competition to stockpile weapons. Once one of the powers begins to mobilize thinking it would make the other powers back down would backfire and create a huge conflict. IV.Balkans Turmoil A. BosniaHerzegovina was developing strong nationalistic desires, encouraged by Serbia. Hostilities were high between Serbia and AustriaHungary. B. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand: June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the AustroHungarian throne, visited Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, to attempt to keep the peace and improve quality of life in Bosnia. Someone climbed the side of the car and killed both the archduke and his wife. C. Austrian ultimatum: Austria blamed Serbia; demanded an apology, insisted they be allowed to search Serbia for the assassin, which Serbia refused, thinking it violated their sovereignty. D. AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia July 28. The next day Russia mobilizes against AustriaHungary because they didn’t want Serbia to be taken over. Two days later, Germany sends an ultimatum to Russia to back down. Within two weeks, all of the major powers in Europe had declared war to back their allies, all of them believing that the conflict would be over in a matter of weeks.
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