Week 3 Day 7-9; Chapter 1 - Identifying The Challenge.
Week 3 Day 7-9; Chapter 1 - Identifying The Challenge. Biology 233
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Week 3 Notes: Mini Review: Ebola epidemic of 2014 was unprecedented. West Africa. Epicenter = uinea (Ebola) (Brazil for Zika Virus). Patient zero, died in Guinea on December of 2013. Fruit batsatural reservoi. Declared public health threat by WHO in March of 2014. Rnought = 2. Infectious dose + 110 virus particles. Dry vs. wet symptoms. Transmission: bushmeat, contact with bodily fluids from Ebola patient experiencing wet symptoms. Cultural challenges. Unsafe burial practices, eat bushmeat, superstitious, use healers. Spread to Conakry (2 million people, international airport). Can’t use contact tracing as a countermeasure. No antivirals, no vaccine (as well as Zika Virus). Microbes In The News: Bacteria Lurking In Beards. ● Beards harbor bacteria. ● Some men had fecal matter in New Mexico study. ○ Comparable to a toilet seat if not taken care of. Conakry: Gbessia International Airport: ● Ebola viruses do not have borders. ● EVD spread to more countries through travelers. ● Imported cases: ○ Infected traveler Thomas Eric Duncan traveled from Liberia to Texas. ○ 2 nurses caring for Duncan were infected with Ebola virus. ● Airport screening: ○ Temperature and questionnaire. High Number Of Health Workers Infected With Ebola During 2014 Epidemic: ● As of 9/23/15: ○ 881 health workers infected. ○ 513 deaths. ■ Nurses. ■ Doctors. ■ Other: pharmacists, lab techs, ambulance workers, midwives, cleaning staff, etc. ● Overall Stats: 28,000 cases, 11,300 deaths = approx. 17,000 survivors. ● Example : Dr. Brantly Mission Doctor, Atlanta. Chapter 1: Mini Review: ● Finished watching “Saving Dr. Brantly”. ● Ebola Challenges: ○ High rate of healthcare worked infected (also takes toll on healthcare infrastructure. ○ Developed countries not trained to care for Ebola patients. ○ Media, fear, stigma and survivors. ● 707060 plan. ● Complications and survivors: ○ Eye complications, Ebola is STI. Microbes In The News: Showerheads: ● Bacteria form biofilms inside of showerheads. ● Mycobacterium avium (lung disease). ● High risk individuals: can cause pulmonary (lung) diseases in elderly and pregnant women. ● Keep showering. ● Change shower heads once a year. ● Metal showerheads are more antimicrobial than plastic. ● Spray at lower pressure to reduce how it sprays all over the shower. Identifying The Challenge: ● The Microbial Challenge: ○ This book is about the worldwide challenge posed by microscopic organisms (microbes_ that are the ubiquitous inhabitants of the earth and our bodies. ● Characteristics of Microbes: ○ Microscopies and singlecelled (usually). ○ Essential to the cycles of nature required for higher life forms to exist (bacteria especially). ○ Beneficial and even essential for human health. ○ Capable of causing illness and/or death (a small number of microbial species). There Are Five Recognized Types Of Microbes: ● Bacteria ● Viruses ● Protozoa ● Fungi. ● Algae (Unicellular). ● Prions (Make six. They, like viruses, are subcellular. But prions are composed entirely of proteins; they have no DNA or RNA genome). The Challenge: ● In the past three decades, forty previously unknown infectious diseases have emerged and/or reemerged. ● HealthMap; Find Outbreaks Near You: ○ HealthMap, was founded by a team of researchers, epidemiologists and software developers at Boston Children’s Hospital in 2006. Emerging Infection: New, reemerging or drug resistant infectious whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or whose incidence threatens to increase in the new future. Can mean 50 years, but less than 100 years. ● Example: Ebola, Zika, Chikungunya. Reemerging Infection: Have been around for a while now, like since the 1800s. Found antibiotics to make it go away, but they are making a comeback. ● Example: Tuberculosis, Lime, Legionnaires, TB. Health officials have recently warned “Our ability to detect, contain, and prevent emerging infectious diseases is in jeopardy.” Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide. Caused by microbes. ● Diarrhea and pneumonia are the two largest killers of children under the age of five. * In 2007, infectious diseases were the second leading cause of death worldwide. Factors Responsible For Emerging Infections: ● World population growth. ● Urbanization. ● Ecological disturbances. ● Deforestation. ● Climate changes. ● Natural disasters. ● Technological advances. ● Air travel. ● Transfusion of unsafe blood. ● Microbial evolution and adaption. ● Antimicrobial resistance. ● Evasive strategies. ● Human behavior and attitudes. ● Complacency. ● Migration. ● Societal factors. Overpopulation Facilitates All Modes Of Infectious Disease Transmission: ● Types of Transmission: ○ Persontoperson. ○ Biological vector (example: mosquito, tick, fly → human). ○ Zoonotic (animal to human). Potential Effects Of World Population On Variables Related To Emerging And Reemerging Infections: ● Increased potential for persontoperson disease spread. ● Greater likelihood of global warming. ● Large numbers of travelers. ● More frequent wars. ● Increased number of refugees and internally displaced persons. ● Increased number and malnutrition. ● More crowding in urban slums. ● Increased numbers of people livingoverty. ● Inadequate potable water supply. ● More large dam constructions and irrigation projects. * SubSaharan Africa, home to 68% of the world's’ people living with HIV. * Cities lacking in sanitation, safe drinking water, and public health infrastructure become “graveyards of mankind.” Ecological Disturbances: ● Deforestation and human intrusion into remote ecosystems contribute to the emergence of infectious diseases. ● See increased contact with animals and insect vectors (example: HIV/AIDS). ● See migration of displaced animals and vectors into villages (example: Chagas’ disease, rabies, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, etc). ● Zoonosis and the species leap. ● Climate changes: global change causes ecological disturbances that increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases. ● Natural disasters: environmental disasters that place populations at risk of an increased burden of infectious diseases. ○ Floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, drought, tsunamis, etc..place populations at risk of infectious diseases. ○ Flood in Southern Africa: ■ Increase in mosquitos, carrying malaria. ■ Increase in cholera, lack of safe drinking water. ○ Drought in Eastern Africa: ■ Famine and malnutrition deplete human immune system. ● Cuts and open wounds. Technological Advances: ● The ability to fly from/to any world destination in less than 24 hours means that a traveler can arrive at a destination before showing disease symptoms. ● Insect vectors harboring microbes can also travel in cabins and cargo holds. ● Nosocomial infections (hospital acquired infection): ○ Blood and blood products can be a source of infection: ■ Example:HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, malaria, Chagas’ disease. ○ Organ transplant or invasive medical procedures (biopsies, etc) can transmit infectious agents: ■ Example:HIV, Chagas’ disease, etc. ○ Patients on immunosuppressive therapy or those with immunosuppressive disease (example: AIDS, etc) are most at risk. * KNOW FOR TEST: gram negativebacteria is harder to treat ram positiv