Psych 355, Week 6 Notes
Psych 355, Week 6 Notes PSY 355
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Psychology & Culture Class #13 What does it mean to have a “self”? o The self as a book Self-concept (info about yourself) as storehouse of knowledge o The self as reader of the book Self-awareness (thinking about the self) o The self as user of the book’s contents The self guides psychological processes Self-regulation (the self makes judgments, plans, etc.) o Ex) “I am…” statements Self-construals o Independent: “Self” distinct from others Internal characteristics for “I am…” Stable sense of self (boundaries are “fixed”) Boundary between “in group” & “out group” is fluid/flexible Ex: stranger in class can become a friend/part of “in group” o Interdependent: Self is part of others (interconnected) Social characteristics for “I am…” Defined by social relationships Sense of self is more flexible Ex: behave one way when around grandmother compared to around a friend Boundary between “in group” & “out group” more closed/fixed; more difficult for a stranger to become part of “in group” People are self defining for a person’s identity, so people are more wary to letting new people into their “in group” o Generating hypotheses with self-construal theory: If a person is from an individualistic (vs collectivistic) culture, what type of self- construal are they likely to possess? Individualistic= independent Collectivistic= interdependent If a person possesses an independent (vs interdependent) self-construal, then what values/goals would be especially important to them? Independent personal goals/values Interdependent social goals/values Class #14 Situational influences on self-construals o What types of situations could influence you to view yourself as independent or interdependent? Marriage more interdependent b/c you form a lifelong relationship with someone Sports football relies on a team effort (interdependent); tennis is more independent Work can be independent or interdependent Job interview independent b/c you have to present inner qualities o Situational view of culture argues that we have both “tools” in our toolbox, but our culture encourages us to use one more often Immediate social situations The stability of our environment o Residential mobility Residential Mobility and Self-Construal (Oishi, Lun, & Sherman, 2007) o Assessed residential mobility # of times moved before coming to college, age at move o Assessed centrality of personal (independent) self List up to 5 personality traits Rate how central these are to sense of self form 1 (not at all) to 7 (absolutely) o Assessed centrality of collective (interdependent) self List up to 5 groups (then/now) Same 7-point rating of centrality o Results: Higher independent score= more independent Higher interdependent score= more interdependent 1 & 2 move had profound impact on interdependent vs independent self- construal Priming Self-Construal o Task #1: read two stories (randomly assigned to which one participant read) & pick out independent pronouns (I, me) OR interdependent pronouns (we, our) depending on which story read Independence Prime: “I go to the city often. My anticipation fills me as I see the skyscrapers come to view. I allow myself to explore every corner, never letting an attraction escape me.” Interdependence Prime: “We go to the city often. Our anticipation fills us as we see the skyscrapers come to view. We allow ourselves to explore every corner, never letting an attraction escape us.” o Task #2: sensitivity to social obligations Read story where one friend (“Lisa”) refused to help another (“Amy”) & answer questions How desirable is Lisa’s behavior? (7point scale) Is Lisa obligated to help Amy? (yes/no) Are Lisa’s actions punishable? (yes/no) Results: How desirable is Lisa’s behavior? o Independent prime- average rating of ~2.5 o Interdependent prime- average rating of ~2 Is Lisa obligated to help? o Independent prime- 50% answer yes o Interdependent prime- ~75% answer yes Are Lisa’s actions punishable? o Independent prime- ~10% answer yes o Interdependent prime- ~30% answer yes Conclusion: *all question answers were considered statistically significant Can say that self-construals can influence behavior Class #15 Cognitive Dissonance o Definition- feeling of discomfort caused by knowledge of inconsistency within self Experiencing dissonance motivated attempts to reduce it, including… (3 strategies) Change behavior changing behavior requires a lot of effort Change belief about yourself changing belief requires us to accept something negative about ourselves, which is also challenging Justify provide explanations to rationalize dissonance to ourselves; most used strategy Post-Decisional Dissonance o Choice inherently involves inconsistency “Choosing” the negative association with the option, giving up positives of the option you deline EX) choose to take a summer trip to Greece or Mexico (difficult decision) Mexico: Pros weather; Cons danger, access Greece: Pros access, can speak English language; Cons more expensive How do we decrease dissonance while on vacation in Greece? o JUSTIFY rationalize pros/cons focus on positives of the option chosen & focus on the negatives of the option declined Studying Cognitive Dissonance o Free-choice paradigm Given list of top 10 albums; rank order Choose between 5 or 6 rank album this creates dissonance 10-minute interval to complete a questionnaire (filler task) allows dissonance to increase Given the actual albums to view (for more detail); rate DESIRABLITY of each & rank order Results: Rank/rate chosen album more highly 2 time Dissonance reduction= spread of alternatives *BUT, consider the type of choice that is being made… INDIVIDUAL CHOICE made based on our personal self characteristic of INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURE Cognitive Dissonance and Culture (Hoshino-Browne et al., 2005) nd o Participants were European- & Chinese-Canadians (2 generation Canadians parents from original country) o Assigned to self or friend condition o Employed free-choice paradigm Choose top 10 from list of 25 entrees & rate enjoyment th th Choose gift certificate (5 or 6 ranked entrée) 10 minute break Given elaborated list of 25 entrees with to 10 highlighted, asked to rerate enjoyment o Prediction: European-Canadians experience more dissonance during self condition; Chinese-Canadians experience more dissonance during friend condition o Results: Euro-Canadian experienced more dissonance during self condition Chinese-Canadian experienced more dissonance during friend condition o Conclusion: Collectivistic cultures will experience more dissonance when a decision they have to make could make them question the consistency of a particular relationship Individualistic cultures will experience more dissonance when a decision they have to make could make them question the consistency of themselves
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