Psychology 110 Week of 2/15/16
Psychology 110 Week of 2/15/16 PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
2/15/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/15/16 Chapter 6: Learning Learning Operant Conditioning - Form of learning controlled by providing consequences for an organism’s behavior - Thorndike and Skinner Thorndike - Law of effect o If a stimulus is followed by a behavior results in an award/reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated to get the reward in the future B.F. Skinner - The Skinner Box o Insight verses stimulus – reward associated o “Aha” moments 2/15/16 Terminology - Positive o Something that is presented to the organism o Gold star, spanking, etc. - Negative o Something is taken away o Stopping torture, bring grounded, taking away a toy - Reinforcement o Increases target behavior - Punishment o Decreases target behavior - Discriminative Stimulus o Stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement (but isn’t actual reward or punishment) o i.e. counting to 3 before delivering punishment to child, snapping at dog to come get patted 2/17/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/17/16 Chapter 6: Learning Shaping - Reinforcing behaviors gradually as they come closer and closer to becoming target behavior - In-Class Activity o Student has to act out a behavior o Taking shoe of Schedules of Reinforcement - Pattern of reinforcing a behavior o Continuous reinforcement Reinforcing every time behavior occurs Faster learning, but also faster extinction o Partial Reinforcement Providing only occasional Reinforcement Slower Extinction Example: Gambling or lottery tickets Dimensions of reinforcement Number of behaviors (Ratio) o Example: Paid based on how much Amount of time (Interval) o Example: Paycheck received monthly Fixed o Predictable o Stable Variable o Unpredictable o Varies in amount of time Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Ratios o Reinforcement given after certain number of responses Fixed Interval o Reinforcement given after certain amount of time has passed (Behavior just needs to occur at least once) Variable Ratio o Reinforcement given after unspecified number of responses o Strongest reinforcement schedule 2/17/16 Example: Gambling Often a parenting style Variable Interval o Reinforcement given after unspecified amount of time has passed (Behavior just needs to occur at least once) Cognitive Models of Learning - Stimulus-Response (S-R) Learning o Doesn’t account for thinking - Stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) learning o Accounts for thinking o Response depends on meaning of stimulus to organism Alternative Ways to Learn - Latent Learning o Learning that isn’t directly observable o Competence vs. Performance o Example: Rats in a maze are able to navigate their way through a maze much easier when given a reward at the end Observational Learning - Learning by watching others - Bandura’s bobo doll experiment o Allowed kid to watch an adult beat up a blow up doll o The kid then mimicked the adult, and acted the same way - Mirror Neurons o Activated both when doing a behavior and when observing a behavior 2/19/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/19/16 Memory - The retention of information over time o An active reconstruction – there is no guarantee that your memory is exactly what happened (almost always errors) o Not passively reproduced o Memory illusion False but subjectively compelling memory - 3 Memory System Models: o Sensory Memory o Short Term Memory o Long Term Memory Sensory Memory - Perceptual information before it is passed on to short term memory - Only briefly stored - Two types: o Iconic Things you see o Echoic Things you hear, lasts longer than iconic Short Term Memory - Retains info for limited durations - Reasons memories don’t stay: o Decay Fading of info over time o Interference Loss of info because of competition from additional incoming info most responsible for loss of info, more so than decay o Retroactive Interference New information interferes with old information Example: Learning a new language o Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info Example: Changed roads, taking old paths that are no longer usable - Average short term memory capacity of 7 items (5 to 9) o Example: names, digits, letters, etc. 2/19/16 o Reason phone numbers are 7 digits long - Help maintaining short term memory o Chunking Example: (865) -711-7117 o Rehearsal: Maintenance – repeating items in original form Elaborative – linking items together in a meaningful way o Levels of processing; example is assigning meaning to information o Primary effects Items at the beginning and end of lists are most remembered
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