This is starting from the 18th Century
This is starting from the 18th Century 20542-04
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donae Pollard on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20542-04 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Emanuel J. Abston in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see SURVEY OF U.S. HISTORY (Since 1877) in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Study from 1787- 1823 John Adams 1735-1826- Minister to England during the confederation period John Jay’s Treaty, 1794–95 On November 19, 1794 representatives of the United States and Great Britain signed Jay’s Treaty, which sought to settle outstanding issues between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence. The treaty proved unpopular with the American public but did accomplish the goal of maintaining peace between the two nations and preserving U.S. neutrality. The Pickney treaty/ The treaty of San Lorenzo (1795) Treaty of San Lorenzo/ Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795 Spanish and U.S. negotiators concluded the Treaty of San Lorenzo, also known as Pinckney’s Treaty, on October 27, 1795. The treaty was an important diplomatic success for the United States. It resolved territorial disputes between the two countries and granted American ships the right to free navigation of the Mississippi River as well as duty-free transport through the port of New Orleans, then under Spanish control The election of 1796 President became John Adams and the vice president was Thomas Jefferson The importance of Washington Farwell address -Urged loyalty to the union and cautioned against an irregular opposition to the government and warned his countrymen to “steer clear of permanent alliances”, but trust instead temporary alliance for extradoninary emergencies. The XYZ affair 1797 o The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France. it was an attempt to restored god relations with France, blockaded the port so Cornwallis couldn’t escape. As a result CC Pinckney and John Marshall, and the Republican Elbridge Gerry were dispatched to Paris, there upon Talleyrand (French foreign minister) instructed his subordinates later known as XYZ to demand a bribe from the Americans as a condition of negotiation (it fell through and they were recalled) The name derives from the substitution of the letters X, Y and Z for the names of French diplomats The alien act was passed in 1798 and it lengthen from 5 to 14 years to become an American citizen. This became a theme. The same year the sedition act. The papers wrote negatively about John Adams. The strong steps that Adams took in response to the French foreign threat also included severe repression of domestic protest. A series of laws known collectively as the ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS were passed by the Federalist Congress in 1798 and signed into law by President Adams. These laws included new powers to DEPORT foreigners as well as making it harder for new IMMIGRANTS to vote. Previously a new immigrant would have to reside in 2 the United States for five years before becoming eligible to vote, but a new law raised this to 14 years. December 1799 Washington devoted himself to his mount Vernon plantation. The presidency of Thomas Jefferson -ushered in the “Revolution of 1800” Thomas Jefferson was liberally educated and practice law. Inaugural address- “We are all republicans; we are all federalist” o Democrat/Republican o When approached by office seekers and his many supporters for jobs he stated “resignations are few and vacancy are non” The census of 1800; it revealed that the population was about 5 million Americans. The people increased by 35 percent, The Cabinet Vice president Aaron Burr and secretary of state James Madison had written the constitution and convince the people to follow it. The secretary of treasury was Albert Gallatin. *The judiciary act of 1801- signed by John Adams on February 18, 1801 3 Judiciary Act of 1801, U.S. law, passed in the last days of the John Adams administration (1797–1801), that reorganized the federal judiciary increasing circuit judgeships in the country and reduction of Supreme Court from 6-5 . The act and the ensuing last-minute appointment of new judges (the so- called “midnight judges”) one by the name of John Marshall this was to make sure that the federalist had dominance. The act was repealed in 1802. Why federalist lost out in national politics?? - They did not regard the opinions of the masses and priested in the assumption that the government be monopolized by an elite class - They catered to the commercials interested more than the agrarian - They paid too little attention to the strong state loyalties *The Tripolitan war 1801-1805 Tripoli tan War, (1801–05), Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships Thomas Jefferson refused to pay tribute to the pirates which led to the undeclared war with northern Africa called Barbary states Tunis, Algeris, Morocco and Tripoli (lybia) Louisiana Purchase was in 1803 – James Monroe was dispatched to Paris with orders to acquire title to the territory. And for about 15 million dollars the United States concluded to bargain. They sought it to be a bargain. 4 Napoleon wanted to free himself during this period. This purchase double the size of the US. The burr conspiracy was an attempt to breakup the union. In this instance burr became the federalist candidate for governor of New York, He had a projection for himself, he wanted to take New York as a completive state and ultimately new England out of the union. Secretary of treasure under Washington, Hamilton learned this and exposed this to the American people. This was tragic for burr so he challenged Hamilton to duel and on July 11 1804 mortally wounded Hamilton at Weehawken, new jersey *. President Thomas Jefferson ordered Burr arrested and indicted for treason, despite not providing firm evidence. Burr's true intentions remain unclear to historians, some of whom claim he intended to take parts of Texas and some or all of the Louisiana Purchase for himself. Burr was acquitted of treason, but the trial destroyed his already faltering political career. In 1804, the last full year of his single term as vice president, Burr killed his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. Burr was never tried for the illegal duel, and all charges against him were eventually dropped, but Hamilton's death ended Burr's political career. . Morgan Lewis won the governorship as a republican of New York in this election 1806. 5 The election of 1808 as introduction Jefferson served two terms did not hesitate in throwing the election of 1808 to his secretary of state James Madison. The federalist was still supported candaite cc Pinckney from South Carolina The Virginia dynasty is a term sometimes used to describe the fact that four of the first five Presidents of the United States were from Virginia. The war hawks won in their efforts for war. The war of 1812 The leader of this group was Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina The War of 1812 also known as the second war for independence was a military conflict, lasting for two and a half years, fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its North American Indian allies. Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, but Europeans sometimes see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars, as it was caused by related issues to that war (especially the Continental System). By the war's end in 1815 most issues had been resolved and there were no boundary changes. War was declared on June 18,1812 and congress called for 50,000 volunteers 6 Ending the war with the Treaty of Ghent 1814 restored the status quo and required the U.S. give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troop defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encourage the growth of industry In this war – Francis Scott key was inspired to write the national anthem, United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812; wrote "The Star Spangled Banner" The Treaty of Fort Jackson (also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814) was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick (Upper Creek) resistance by United States allied forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. It occurred on the banks of the Tallapoosa River near the present city of Alexander City, Alabama. The U.S. force, led by General Andrew Jackson, consisted mainly of the West Tennessee Militia and 39th United States Infantry, allied with several groups of Cherokee and Lower Creek friendly to the American side. The Upper Creek were led by Chief Menawa, who fled with hundreds of survivors into Florida, where they allied with the Seminole. The surrender ended 7 the Creek War, which the United States was fighting simultaneously with the War of 1812. The era of good feeling 1817-1823- The presidency of James Monroe, the new president comes in a lot has taken place. Now that America got their commercial independence from Great Britain. The United States was competing in trade and they were on the road to expanding. A period wherein politics were largely in agreement on a national agenda for expansion and series of diplomatic achievement were forged by john Quincy Adams. President James Monroe secretary of state had John C. Calhoun (hawk) was secretary of war was in the cabinet. The theory of political nationalism Russo-American Treaty of 1824 Signed in St. Petersburg between the representatives of Russia and the U.S. on April 17, 1824 (effect in Jan. 1825). It gave Russian claims on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America south of the parallel 54 degrees 40' north over Oregon Country. In the south there were five civilized tribes -the Cherokees 8 -Chickasaws -Choctaw -creeks -the Seminoles The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, [1also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, [3or the  Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. the US agreed to assume up to five million dollars of the claims of American merchants who had lost ships and cargoes to Spain during the Napoleonic wars. *The supreme court case. The Mc. McCullough vs Maryland Case 1819 Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues were having their sentiments projected by increasing the power of the national government at the expense of the states. Westward expansion After Ohio in 1803 and Louisiana in 1812, there was Indiana in 1816, Mississippi in 1817, and Illinois in 1818 Interestingly enough, representative James Tallmadge of New York in February 13, 1819 offered the Tallmadge amendment which proposed the prohibition of additional slaves into the new states and all children 9 born of slaves in that region be freed when they reach the age of 25(defeated) *The Missouri compromise (March 1820) A notable feature of the economic growth of the US was the orderly admission of the new states into the union Maine entered as a free state, and it kept the balance between the free states and the slave states in the union, this intensifies sectionalism, but relaxed the slavery issue for a generation The Monroe doctrine 1823 The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. Buried in a routine annual message delivered to Congress by President James Monroe in December 1823, the doctrine warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs. The first statement was directed to Russia and the second was addressed to the “European concert “and Metternich doctrine of intervention Great Britain France Spain 10 Prussia (Germany) Austria Russia Bottom line: “There was to be no more colonization in the western hemisphere” 11
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