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Bisc 102 Ch. 1 Notes

by: Sumayia Young

Bisc 102 Ch. 1 Notes BISC 102-001

Sumayia Young

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Notes for Dr. Tiffany Bensen's Notes on the entire first chapter of the class. I take good notes, I listen and write down every word she says. These notes contain the organization of life, atoms an...
Fundamentals of Biology I (BISC 102-001)
Tiffany Bensen
Class Notes
Biology, Bisc, Bensen, Tiffany, atoms, general, cells, organisms, tissue
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sumayia Young on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 102-001 at University of Mississippi taught by Tiffany Bensen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I (BISC 102-001) in Biological Sciences at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 02/20/16
Ch.1 Scientific Study of Life 1.1 Biology is the scientific study of life. ­Characteristics of Life  1. is organized  2. requires energy  3. maintains internal stability (homeostasis)  4. Reproduces, grows and develops 5. evolves.  •the combination of these characteristics, together, constitute life.  1. Life is Organized  •the fundamental unit of life is cells (because all cells hold DNA)  ­atoms organize into molecules, then organelles, then the cell.  ­from the cell, then tissue, then organs, an organ system, finally an organism.  ­individuals of the same species, at the same time creates a population.  ­human population +squirrel population +trees= a community.  ­nonliving components + populations = an ecosystem.  ­all those + the air creates the biosphere. •Organization leads to emergent properties. The functions that arise from  interactions between parts (fig. 1.3) —> BrainCell  ­together, parts function a way they couldn’t individually 2. Life requires Energy  • energy ultimately comes from the sunlight (fig 1.4)  • Producers capture sun energy, and converts to useable form for themselves and others. (collected from nonliving environment)  • consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms  • decomposers obtain energy (and nutrients) from dead organisms and organic wastes  and return the nutrients to the soil.  • transfer of energy from level to level is inefficient and is lost. (lost as heat) 3. Life maintains internal Stability  •the internal environment of the body must be kept stable, though conditions are  always changing.  ­Ex. temperature, blood glucose, blood pH, water content, salt content, heart rate  •The maintenance of internal stability is homeostasis  •The body has a variety of mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis  ­DNA directs the activities of the cell by making proteins , translates to traits.  4. Life reproduces, grows and evolves  ­Life persists when organization passes on DNA to make a new generation:  •asexual­ one parent, offspring has the same DNA as the parent (the DNA was  copied) (fig. 1.6)  •sexual­ 2 parents off spring DNA is unique, as is the parents’ DNA. It creates genetic  diversity.  5. Life evolves  ­DNA changes (mutates) and so then do the traits that the DNA codes for creating  variation  ­Evolution: the changes in DNA from one generation to the next.  •Evolution doesn’t occur in individuals, it’s population level process.  ­Evolution occurs often by natural selection, where nature “selects” traits that favor  survival in a given environment (adaptations). ­For natural selection to occur:  •populations experience a selection pressure from the enviornment.  ­so many individuals, they have to compete.  •individuals of the populations will vary in their traits, those with traits the promote  survival live to reproduce.  •those traits then become more common in the population over time: adaptations.  ­Bacteria evolve quickly because they reproduce quickly by simple cell division (binary  fission)  •DNA mutates to create genetic variation, either by accident or mutagens.  •the environment changes, antibiotic is introduced that kills susceptible cells, not  resistant cells.  •Natural selection: nature selects individual with resistance who survive to reproduce  and passion the resistant traits.  1.2 Viruses are not living organisms  ­Life is Diverse: 3 Main Branches  •Taxonomy is the science of naming and categorizing organisms (fig 1.11)  ­scientifically, species have 2­part names of its Genus and species  •Three Domains  ­Bacteria  ­Archaea  ­Eukarya  •cell type separates Bacteria and Archaea from Eukarya (fig 1.10) •Bacteria and Archaea­ prokaryotic cells and Eukarya­ eukaryotic cells.  1.     3. Domain Eukarya:  •Some unicellular, many multi­cellular (Animals, Fungi, Plants and Protista) <—  Kingdoms •How they capture energy distinguishes the kingdoms.  ­Kingdom Plantae (capture their own energy from the sun, Plants)  •Multi­Cellular  •Autotrophs (get their energy at the trophic level)  ­Kingdom Animalia  •Multi­Cellular  •Heterotrophs (by ingestion)  ­Kingdom Fungi  •Most are multi­cellular  •secrete an enzyme that breaks down what they’d like to eat and absorb  •Heterotrophs (by external digestion)  ­Protista (multiple kingdoms)  •eukaryote that is not a plant, animal or fungi  •unicellular or multicellular •Autotrophs or heterotrophs (i.e. Ameba­ heterotroph and unicellular, Algae) 1.3 What is Science?  ­A process by which we gain knowledge (comes from the latin verb, to know)  ­Gain knowledge by observing and asking questions about the natural world.  •Why, What, How and Where?  •answer questions based on evidence, collected by either discovery (description) or  experimentation (manipulating a system)  ­Results from scientific exploration must be verifiable and withstand scrutiny  ­Robust results lead to consensus among experts which leads to scientific theories about nature  ­What is a scientific theory?  •According to the Nat’l Academy of Sciences: Some science explanations are well  established that no new advice is likely to alter them … theory refers to a  comprehensive explanation of an important feature of nature that is supported by  many facts gathered overtime. (Examples: Cell Theory, Evolution, Diversity of Life)  ­different from a law, that applies to a particular phenomenon that always occurs in  given certain conditions (Ex.: Laws of Segregation, Law of Independent  Assortment)  Scientists Study the Natural World  ­Making use of scientific method:  •a general way of using evidence to answer questions  •a combination of thinking, detective work, making connections between facts of  phenomenon (that might seem related), and communicating with others.  •a standard in science, it invites scrutiny and facilitates repeatability, which lead to  verifiability of results. (scientist object ability (bias))  The Process of Science:  ­Make Observations­ something we sense; based on knowledge or explanations,  results ­Ask a Question  •Consult Prior Knowledge  ­Formulate a Hypothesis­ a tentative answer to the question; to be good, it must be  testifiable (falsifiable) ­ be able to collect data to support or reject the hypothesis. ­Make Predictions­ Usually an “if, then” statement ­Collect and Interpret Data­ prediction determines how to collect data; the data is  analyzed using statistical methods ­Draw Conclusions  •Consult Prior Knowledge ­Peer Review ­Publish ­ new knowledge to build or present to other scientist for independent  evaluation; does data support or reject the hypothesis? ­Goes back to Make Observation, if its a no, then to formulating a hypothesis.  About Collecting Data  ­Two ways in which data can be collected, by:  •discovery (through observation) or  •experimentations, conducting test under controlled conditions  ­intended to isolate an effect  ­factors are manipulated ­must be designed carefully to yield valid results.  •Elements of experimental design:  ­independent variable (“treatment”): the amount of water  ­dependent variable (“responds” to treatment) : you can’t control  •dependent depends on the independent.  ­standardized variable(s) (those to be held constant i.e. sunlight)  ­sample size (number of individuals in each treatment)  ­control group (no treatment/ placebo for comparison i.e. the Normal)  •Data collection should reveal if the independent variable affected the dependent.  ­statistical analysis yields a probability that an effect is due purely to chance  (because the numbers were so close)  ­if the probability is very small (<5%), the effect is statistically significant; the  hypothesis is supported.  Science and You  ­Where do you hear science news?  ­It’s important to separate science for spin, to identify misrepresentations, and find  trustworthy sources for further information  ­Science Toolkit:  •Where does the information come from?  ­What is the source?  •different source give you different levels of information and probably differing  levels of fidelity (  •does the source have an agenda or goal?  •search for news from sources with expertise.  •Are the views of scientific community accurately portrayed?  •Is the scientific community’s confidence in the ideas accurately portrayed?  ­Beware of false balance:  •Not all sides of an issue deserve equal weight  •Uncertainty and tentativeness are inherent to science, but that doesn’t mean  untrustworthy  ­What does the evidence say?  •Controversy comes from different sources; disagreement can arise about:  ­a central hypothesis theory  ­a less central aspect of a scientific idea  ­the ethics of methods or approaches  ­the application of knowledge  ­viewpoints  Limitations of Science ­Experimental evidence can/may lead to multiple valid interpretations.  ­Even the most carefully designed experiment can fail to provide a definitive answer  (Why We Care, p. 15)  ­Researchers can/may interpret data and form erroneous conclusions (self­correcting  nature of science)  ­The scientific community can be slow to accept new evidence that supports unexpected conclusions.  Scientific inquiry cannot answer questions of beauty, morality, ethics, or religion. 


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