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Biology 151 Week 4 Notes

by: Regan McGillick

Biology 151 Week 4 Notes BIO 151-001

Regan McGillick

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Chronic Diseases: Nutrition, Metabolism, Digestive system BEGINING
Biology of Humans
Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
WEEK 4 (2/15 , 2/17, 2/19) --MODULE 2 – CHRONIC DISEASES— digestive-system-cross-s-14209607.jpg  The leading cause to chronic illnesses is defiance/ or lack of nutrients. I. The Digestive System – Chapter 14 a. Functions: movement, secretion, digestion (chemical process), absorption (cells get nutrients), excretion --Excretion: urinary (liquid), digestion (solid), respiratory (CO2) b. Chemical Digestive: i. Reactants -----(enzymes)-- Products ii. Hydrolysis: breaking down, H2O is being inputted and releases energy 1. The reactants (larger) --- products (smaller) iii. Dehydration synthesis: energy is being inputted into the reaction, H2O is being released. 1. The reactants (smaller) --- products (larger) c. Biomolecules: i. Carbohydrates/sugars: NUTRIENT = monosaccharide ii. Lipids: NUTRIENT = glucose, fatty acids iii. Proteins: NUTREINT = amino acids iv. Nucleic acids: DNA/RNA v. ATP  gastrointestinal (GI) tract (the route from your mouth to your anus)  THE PATH OF DIGESTION: A. Oral Cavity (Mouth) a. Process = chew b. Moisten bolus (food) c. Begin Starch Digestion = starch enzyme come from saliva  3 pairs of the salivary glands B. Pharynx: mouth-> oral cavity-> pharynx-> esophagus a. Functions: i. A “trap door” = epiglottis: keeps food from going down into the trachea, air ways and allows food to pass through and over into the esophagus 1. Remains open when we breath ii. Rough muscle- voluntary acts of pushing the bolus down iii. Smooth muscle- involuntary acts of allowing food to easily slide down b. Anatomy: i. Circular, long muscle ii. Inner epithelium iii. Lower esophageal sphincter 1. If the bolus doesn’t go into the stomach- stuck or doesn’t go through the esophageal sphincter = acid reflex C. Stomach: a. Muscle layer b. Gastric layer c. Functions: i. Secrets gastric juices == Stores and Mixes ii. Mixes chyme iii. Stores chyme d. Components of Gastric Juice: i. Hydrochloric acid- 1. Stops starch digestion -. Mucus protects the inside lining 2. Kills bacteria 3. Activates enzymes: that digest protein – inactive, only activate when it mixes with food/bolus e. Absorption of Stomach: i. Ethyl alcohol ii. Medicines a. NOT NUTRIENTS Stomach and Saliva glands only play a very small portion of the big activity that is DIGESTION D. Small Intestine: 20 ft total= 3 parts a. Duodenum – connects to the stomach i. Mostly about digestion ii. Receiving secretions (form pancreas) b. Jejunum – middle part c. Ileum – attaches to the colon --in the lining = epithelium = villi and microvilli - these villas increase the surface area to reach good in our system (efficient way of getting nutrients) d. Functions: i. All digestion – nutrients via enzymes ii. Absorbs nutrients and water e. Intestine Juice Components: i. Polypeptide’s – these are many molecules from proteins ii. Disaccharide = glucose iii. Mucus (The order and information was given and is of the credit of Professor Kelly Murray, of Biology 151) E. Pancreas: a. There are 2 gland cells: 1) Pancreatic acinic juice 2) Islets of Langerhans i. Islets of Langerhans: 1. Enodocrine 2. 2 hormones (that go to the Liver) b. Key to know: Juices exit through the duct through the Duodeneum of the small intestine c. Components of the Juices: i. Enzymes 1. large proteins-> amino acids 2. starches -> disaccharids (same as in the digestion of the starches that begins in your mouth) 3. lipids -> glycerol, fatty acids ii. Sodium bicarbonate- the pH of the stomach acid is a 2= ver acidic! F. Liver: just like the pancreas- the secretions are brought to the stomach for digestion a. **This organ needs to be healthy//can also regenertate if it is healthy i. ex: when in need of a liver transplant, a donor’s body will regrow a new liver b. It gets its nutrients though vesicles that are attached to the small intestine. c. Energetically Active: i. Cellular respiration=using nutrients to make ATP ii. Glycogen storage iii. Detox= of chemicals like alcohole= the immune system breaks they unknown or harmful compnents. 1. Detxo and convert ammonia to unrea – less harmful molecule iv. Stores vitamins, iron, lipids d. Circulatroy functions and produces bile e. Bile: i. Storage in gall bladder ii. Release to duodenum duct iii. Neon green liquid iv. Complex-inoraganic salts v. Emulsifies lipids= breaking them down to a smaller sixe for digesetion vi. Detoxes G. Large Intestine: 4 parts a. Cecum= short, pocket where the appendix is attached to b. Colon c. Rectum d. Anus  Function: o H2O absorption o Formation of feces and sends them out II. Nutrition and Metabolism --So what happens when all those nutrients enter the cells? -ATP is produced -Cell maintenace and repairs made (all in MITOCHONRIA) -Growth and reproduction A. Metabolism: 2 pathways of reactions 1. Catabolism- the breaking down of nutrients= ATP -get 36 ATP molecules from a single glucose molecule -Cellular respiration 2. Anabolism- the formation of complex molecules from the nutrients -this takes a lot of energy for the reaction (using nutrients to build larger storage molecules) B. Fats and Proteins: Proteins: amino acids-> generate ammonia-> used in Liver to detox and converted to the Urea -Nutrient storage= coversted into fat storage (long term) -glylogen = short term -adipose tissue = long term -ATP = for balance: -basal metabolism -muslce and digestion= functioning normally -Energy Balance C. Obesity: -depends on your environment, exercise or not, eating habits -BMI (body mass index) -> Benefits: gives a general weight based on body as a whole, looking at the average population of a given area, this number can indicate other health issues -> Disadvantages: Doesn’t distinguish weight of muscle versus fat, gender, age, eating habits  How? - 1) Obesiy genes -2) humans instudries- food processing, agriculture, surpluse over quality -3) Humans are now less active and more sedentary  Cause Diabities: -A leading cause form obesity


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