Bio 151 Week 4 Notes
Bio 151 Week 4 Notes Bio 151
Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Dennis on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 151 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Alison Miyamoto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Week 4 In order to build a protein that is soluble in water which of the fundamental groups would you want to have in the amino acids of your protein. Functional groups with C, O and H -> have high electronegativity which makes polar bonds Biological Macromolecules -Monomers -> Polymers - Amino acids -> Proteins - Nucleotides -> Nucleic Acids (DNA,RNA) - Monosaccharides -> Polysaccharides (carbohydrates) Carbohydrates: diverse functions in in cells, provides fibrous structural materials, indicate cell identity, store chemical energy, great diversity from one chemical C H O formula: 6 12 6 Ex. Cellulose, Staron, Peptoglycin Carbohydrate Structure CH O¿ Basic chemical formula: ( 2 n Glucose O H C OH/ HO Hydroxyl group O C H H OH H-C=O Carbonyl group C C H H C H C H HO H H O -Carbohydrates form a linear structure of glucose - Oxygen from the 5- carbon bonds to the 1- carbon, resulting in a ring structure - Different C4 Hydroxyl orientations- different sugars - In the ring formation: the same sugar can have two forms based on the C1 α β hydroxyl orientation ( Glucose (OH pointing down), Glucose (OH pointing up)) Glyosidic linkages: produce polysaccharides via condensation reaction, a bond between monosaccharaide hydroxyl groups Ex. C-4, 4- glyosidic linkage -Polysaccharide formation through glyosidic bonds also creates diversity - Linkages can form between different hydroxyl groups, so the location and geometry of these bonds widely vary - Glyosidic linkages come in two forms: Maltose ( α ), Lactose (β ) What can vary among monosaccharides? The number of carbon atoms α−linkage β−glyocisidiclinkage Forms helics Form flat sheets Bonds ‘easy’ to break Bonds hard to break Energy carbs Structural Starch, glycosm Cellulose, peptidoglycan -Carbohydrates can be covalently attached to photons on the cell surface- providers the cell with a unique identity Glycoprotein: -Lipids are Hydrocarbons: fats, steroids, phospholipids - Fats are formed by ester linkages Ester linkages: form fatty acid via condensation reaction Phospholipid: Polar head (hydrophilic) , Non polar tail Amphipathic: What structures do phospholipids form in water? Lipid micelles, lipid bilayers Liposome: artificial membrane-bound vesicles Lumen: inside of the vesicle -Phospholipid bilayers spontaneously close in on themselves in small compartments Selective permeability: How can you regulate? Small non-polar molecules->small, uncharged polar molecules-> large, uncharged polar molecules-> ions +¿ ¿ +¿,Na −¿,K ¿ ¿ O2,CO ,2 →2 O ,g2ycerol→Glucose,sucrose→Cl High permeability Low permeability -Properties of the fatty acid and tails influence the behavior of phospholipids in a membrane (2 types, straight or a kink) - A kink in the tail is formed because of a double covalent bond between carbon ‘Saturated’ = C-C single bonds ‘Unsaturated’ = C=C double bonds (less hydrogen) -Saturation is due to the bonds of hydrogen Not very permeable (Butter) More permeable (Oil) Straight Kinked Single bonds Double bonds Little space More space Longer tails (more hydrophobic) Shorter tails More cholesterol Less cholesterol Colder temperature Warmer temperature Cholesterol: amphipathic, an important component of membranes -Cholesterol ‘fills’ the spaces left by unsaturated fatty acids - Cholesterol lowers permeability - All organisms have membranes with overall similar permeability regardless of where they live or came from Colder temperature = more cholesterol Warmer temperature = less cholesterol -Phospholipids move freely on their side at the bilayer - They do not ‘flip’ easily to the other side of the bilayer Diffusion: the random movement of molecules due to kinetic (thermal) energy 1) Separation of lipid bilayer 2) Diffusion 3) Equilibrium Solute: the “stuff” (molecules) dissolved in a solution Solvent: solution that is doing the dissolving Osmosis: diffusion of water molecules 1) Unequal concentrations across membrane 2) Water movement through osmosis Maintaining homeostasis Isotonic solutions: no change +¿¿ Hypertonic solutions: more salt outside, low Na inside, the water will move out and will shrink the molecule +¿¿ Hypotonic solutions: water pushes inside with high Na inside -> cell swells and bursts
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