GOVT 2305 Week 3 Notes
GOVT 2305 Week 3 Notes GOVT 2305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee Noonan on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 2305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Iliyan Iliev in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Founding Fathers and The Constitution The Founding Fathers: • George Washington: ○ Served in British military for the French & Indian War ○ CommandedAmerican Army Wasn't a good field general ○ Presided over Constitutional Convention ○ First President • Alexander Hamilton: ○ Aide-de-camp to Washington ○ Co-wrote Federalist papers ○ Federalist Treasury Secretary • Thomas Jefferson: ○ Authored Declarationof Independence Did not attend Constitutional Convention ○ Founder of Democratic-Republican Party ○ Vice President for Adams ○ Third President • John Adams: ○ Quasi-Federalist ○ Drafted Declaration of Independence ○ Vice President of Washington ○ Second President • James Madison: ○ Author of Bill of Rights ○ Father of Constitution ○ Co-wrote Federalist papers ○ Founder of Democratic-Republican party ○ Fourth President Problemsthe Founding Fathers faced: • Collective action problems • Agenda setting problems • Principal-agent problems • Constitutional choice Issues at the ConstitutionalConvention: • Slavery • Large vs. small states • Strong vs. weak government The Constitution: • Why did we need a constitution? ○ Protectthe peace ○ Protectindividual rights and welfare ○ Provide public goods ○ Provide goods that markets do not • What types of rules can be specified? ○ Positions/Boundaries ○ Actions ○ Authority Aggregation ○ Aggregation ○ Scope ○ Information ○ Payoffs • Different combinations of rules create different governments: ○ Monarchy:Rule by a single person based on divine right ○ Dictatorship:Rule by a single person based on force ○ Oligarchy: Rule by a small collective ○ Democracy:Rule by a majority ○ Anarchy: No rules or everyonerules • Articles of Confederation: ○ Created in 1789 ○ Highly decentralized government ○ Each state had one votein congress ○ No executive or judicial branch ○ Why did it fail? Failed to coordinate revolutionarywar effort Disjointed fiscal policy Domesticand Foreign trade barriers Failed to provide commondefense and peace • Constitutional Convention: ○ Two plans were proposed to separate the powers of government Virginia Plan (larger states): Two chambers, based on state population, legislature can make any law and veto state laws New Jersey Plan (smaller states): One chamber, based on equal state representation, taxing power and regulation of commerce, veto state laws, courts appointed by executive ○ Great Compromise: Two chamber legislature: House of Representatives:representation based on population Senate: equal representationfrom each state Majorityrule used for decisions ○ Goals: Control factions Allow people to govern themselves Create system of representation Solve collective action problems Select agents to carry out functions of government • Constitution's innovations ○ Checks: each branch has a veto power over the other ○ Balances: powers are leveraged across the branches ○ National Supremacy: federal law overpowersstate law ○ Federalism: power is shared between state and national government • Amending the Constitution ○ 2/3 vote congress --> 3/4 state legislatures ratify ○ 2/3 vote congress --> 3/4 state conventions ratify ○ Constitutional Convention --> 3/4 state legislatures ratify ○ Constitutional Convention --> 3/4 state conventions ratify • Informal changes to the Constitution: ○ Changing interpretations and norms ○ Legislative actions: use of the elastic clause ○ Judicial review Articles of the Constitution: Articles of the Constitution: • Article I: The Legislature ○ Section I: House and Senate ○ Section II: House Elected every 2 years by the people Representationbased on population ○ Section III: Senate Elected every 6 years by state legislatures VP is president of the Senate Try impeachments ○ Section IV: States run elections ○ Section V: Internal operations Determinetheir own rules and proceedings ○ Section VI: Payment ○ Section VII: Bills for raising revenue begin in the House Bills must pass House and Senate Veto and overrides are 2/3rds ○ Section VIII: Congress can: Collect taxes, borrow & coin money,regulate commerce,post offices, declare war, rule over D.C. Necessary and Proper Clause ○ Section IX: End of slave trade shall not be before 1808 Habeas Corpus, Ex post facto laws ○ Section X: States cannot: Enter into treaties with other states Coin money Impose tariffs • Article II: The Executive ○ Section I: Four terms Electoral College ○ Section II: Commanderin Chief Pardon Make treaties w/ 2/3rds Senate agreement Appointments and nomination ○ Section III: State of the Union ○ Section IV: Impeachment • Article III: The Judiciary ○ Section I: One Supreme Court and inferior courts ○ Section II: Judicial power Cases dealing with constitution Ambassadors Vs. United states State and citizen of another state ○ Section III: Treason Need two witnesses • Article VI: Supremacy Clause
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