Popular in Survey of World History To 1500
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrington Johnson on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10494 at Georgia State University taught by Rachel Ernst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Survey of World History to 1500 Class Notes Week Four Sumerians- the black-haired ones Uruk and Ure largest cities Ure would surpass Eridu Took 3,000 years for Sumerians and Semites to assimilate each other No modern Sumerian cognates but many Semite cognates i.e. (Ethiopia language, Hebrew, Arabic) No modern cognates of Sumerian cognates because Semitics took over Sumerians Man takes over city of Kish, continued taking over other city-states The world’s first true empire. Grandson came and took over the rest of the area Had roving army so representatives of a territory that has been taken over did not have a way to enforce rule Akkadian language remained - All beaureucrats had to know this language Empire composed of many different people, languages, and culture Kingdoms are pretty uniform in all of these aspects Babylonian Empire- harsh, strict, imposed takes instead of outright robbing them Statue with Code of Hammurabi in every city Taken over Sumerians Copper mining The earliest forms of writing were pictographic or sign that conveyed simple ideas that couldn’t be linked together to make sentences Later writing would combine pictographs and logographs Together, these signs could make sentences. Transferable to other languages The hundreds of arbitrary symbols added to the logographs and pictographs indicated Syllables Verb tenses Allowed for more advanced arithmetic Eg; Hieroglyph and Hieratic scripts - Rise of the scribe class - The very rich that could afford not to work for ten years when learning the many symbols Roman alphabet First Stage: Proto-Hebrew/Phoenician/Canaanite Alphabet - Starts as a series of lesser-used symbols that Egyptians used between pictogram hieroglyphs - First found in the Levant and Sinai (written on cave walls) Second Stage: Used by the Phoenicians (maritime traders based in the Levant, where it evolved into something more familiar - No vowels Third Stage: Advantages of alphabet - More accessible Scribal class diminishes in importance Paves the way for democracy and recording the religions/beliefs of the other 99% About 1000 BCE- Hebrew people argued the law (in Old Testament) Week Five Ma’at- divine right Old Kingdom- economy relies heavily on agriculture, no raids, 500 years of uninterrupted prosperity Extended to First Castaract- geographical barrier in the Nile River Ruler treated absolutely as a god Pharaoh’s role is mainly ceremonial but not a political puppet Egypt divided into 40 different regions handled by governors who collect taxes from people- portion of annual yield in crops Khufu’s pyramids of Giza built First Intermediate (Interregnum) Period- empire fractured for unknown reason for 100 years (maybe drought) ; increased autonomy for individual landholders Interregnum- between rules, between kings Middle Kingdom Focused on mining and trade nd Kingdom extended to 2 Cataract Capital relocated to Thebes Religion in the Kingdom of Egypt extended beyond concerns of this life First pharaohs, then everyone - Ka - Osiris and the Book of the Dead Judgement The “Advocate”- semi-divine creature that puts its own heart on the scale so that a person may move on Minoan Civilization Society shaped by the geography of Crete Limited agriculture: goat/sheep herding, olive oil, barley and honey Ideal position for maritime trade Around 1700 BCE, Minoan civilization slowly taken over by Mycenae civilization (took 200 years) Minoan civilization was lost The more money there is to inherit, the lower a woman’s position is Two major things determine the autonomy of women in society are: Prevalence of external military conflict Emphasis on property inheritance on the patrilineal line (how much money/property stand to be inherited?) Women can’t be involved in military combat, so huge disparity in equality between men and women Religion does not necessarily denigrate sex or subjugate women Eg: Union of heaven and earth/ divine and mortal - Temple of the Moon Good, Nanna-Sin at Ur - Holy Prostitutes Goddesses: Indicator of how well women were treated in a society? - Had characteristics that normal women did not, unfair treatment Nubia- lots of natural resources Very strong kingship model, very centralized government Ta-Seti- Land of the Bow (3400-3200 BCE)- spoken of as a legend Not written language until 300 BCE Some contention over dominance of Nile between Nubians and Egyptians Nubians at a disadvantage because Egypt in the north Capital at Kerma Between 2 and 4 cataracts Rich in gold, ebony, ivory and precious stones Sometimes good mutual relationship but there were conflicts that sometimes erupted Nubians known for creating great bows and good archers Egyptians sometimes hired Nubian archers as mercenaries Nubian Culture- mixture of traditions and beliefs from Egypt and the Sudan Matrilineal Succession- property passed down through the mother- anomaly of history Had a pantheon, at the top- Lion-god Apedemak (warrior god) and creator-god Sebiumeker- intergration of Egyptian pantheon Pyramids- dead buried at the top Indo- Europeans Settled west of Ural Mountains in modern-day Ukraine and western Russia c.4000 BCE Most successful raiding peoples Domesticated horses, learned copper smelting and bronze metallurgy from Mesopotamia, invented the compound bow, and invented the chariot by 3000 BCE Mittani- Zagros Mountains (modern-day Iraq) among Hurrian; became rulers of Hurrian people Hittites and Hurrians warred with each over over the area between them (modern-day Syria) Constant warfare drove to Hyksos, a people that liveed in the Levant and modern-day Syria, south, to the Nile Delta; got the horses, chariots, and bows and then invade the Nile Delta Stayed in Nile Delta and created stranglehold over Egypt- breadbaskedt of Egypt, control trade Second Intermediate Period- (1750-1550 BCE) Hyksos Ruler of Foreign Lands Introduced horses, chariots, compound bow, and bronze armor to Egypt Theban rebellion- Hyksos kicked out after 200 years by Egyptians Egypt: New Kingdom/Imperial Era (1550-1069 BCE) Age of Expansion Under Tuthmosis III (1479-1425), the Sinai, Levant and part of Syria was conquered; pharaoh that conquered most in lifetime th Campaigned south down to the 5 cataract of the Nile, destroying the Kerma, the Kingdom of Kush and incorporating it into Egypt Complex bureaucracy centered on regional rule Capital at Aten (modern-day Karnak) King Tut’s father- Hymn of Aten, monotheism for 20 years, maybe why Tut was murdered at 18 Hittite Empire (c. 1650-1182) Capital at Hattusa Empire extended throughout Anatolia and Syria Governing Bureaucracy- you can rule but must be administer of empire and make an oath to the king, able to keep traditions, just had to follow Hittite rule. - “Great King” at Hattusa - Panku (assembly of principle administrators) - Regional rulers (deposed kings) - Military garrisons (Hittite nobility) People payed garrison in land grants Beginning of regulated international trade Pharoah called Mesopotamian rulers “brothers”, leveling them up Egyptians vs. Hittites- met in Syria, contested land; As each empire expanded their domains, they eventually clashed over Syria. Hittites learned how to process iron- swords, armor, shields Organized army- commanders (educated nobility), chariot warriors, foot soldiers (rural mercenaries) Battle of Kadesh 1274 BCE Largest chariot battle of the ancient world: approximately 5000 chariots in total No decisive victor Egypt and the Hittites shared Syria until the invasion of the Sea Peoples End of the Bronze Age 50 years after Battle of Kadesh- Invasion of the Sea Peoples Egypt and Hittites return to former boundaries Land taken back over by regional rulers 3 things that usually lead to fall of empire 1. Economic/Ecology Failure 2. Internal War/ Conflict/Rebellion 3. Foreign Invasion Week Six Akkadian (language)-Lingua franka (second language, trade language, language of administration/diplomacy) for the region for 1000+ years; the official language of the Akkadian Empire; Semitic language; cuneiform Battle of Kadesh- signified the end of the Bronze Age (iron via Hittites); largest chariot battle; between Egyptians and Hittites in Syria; 1274 BCE Chariot- Indo European invention; eventually stopped being used in warfare because of difficulty of upkeep; Hyksos introduced it to Egypt; Battle of Kadesh was the largest chariot battle Land Grants- introduced by Hittite Empire (c. 16501182 BCE); military of Hittite nobility was paid with these’ made people work for their salary; government payment to military, land instead of currency Bronze- Sumerians invented it; bronze age ended after Battle of Kadesh; inferior to iron; Indo Europeans used bronze; made weapons and iron Sargon of Akkad- known as the Great Kings; world’s first true emperor; administered several city-states into one conglomerate; after civilization was gone, Akkadian language remained Nubians- natural resources (gold, ebony, ivory); kingship model; matrilineal succession (an anomaly of history); mixture of tradition and belief a mixture from Egypt and Sudan; competed with Egypt, capital at Kerma Minoans- lived in Crete; maritime traders, socially egalitarian; palace at Knosos Assyrians- good with textile and trade; capital is Assur; Semitic kingdom in Mesopotamia; initiated the idea of knights, brutal tactics, lumber but not cedar Hebrews- were called Jews one they moved to Judah’ biblical/oral tradition; monotheistic Early-Dynastic Egypt- period of Egypt’s unification Egypt: Old Kingdom- built pyramids of Giza; extended to the First Cataract; 500 years of uninterrupted prosperity; divided into 40 different regions handled by governors; at height of its power; capital was Memphis First Intermediate Period- people lost faith in the pharaoh, fell for unknown reasons Egypt: Middle Kingdom- focused on mining of gold and other minerals; kingdom extended to 2 Cataract; capital was Thebes; pharaoh had less power than in the Old Kingdom Second Intermediate Period- rule of Hyksos, after 200 years of rule, Egyptians broke free Egypt: New Kingdom- both a kingdom and an empire; complex bureaucracy (centered on regional rule); Age of Expansion; conquered Nile Delta all the way to the 5 Cataract Hyksos- Indo European technology; introduced horses, chariots, and bronze armor to Egypt; “Rulers of foreign lands”; 1750-1551 (ruled Egypt) Indo Europeans- invented the chariots; most successful at invading people, domesticated horses, invented the compound bow; spread their language along with their technology Babylonians- had Code of Hammurabi; implemented taxes instead of completely taking over; hanging gardens; fell to Persians Hittites- in Battle of Kadesh against Egyptians; introduced iron; introduced land grants; migrated from Indo European area, capital was Hattusa Phoenicians- mainly trade through ports; purple and red dyes (meant high status), monopoly on Cedar trees; used writing that developed from Egypt to improve trade; rise after “sea people” invade and destabilize Egypt
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