PSCI 1030 Notes 2/17-2/19
PSCI 1030 Notes 2/17-2/19 PSCI 1030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Tate on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Irina Perevalova in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
PSCI 1030 2/17/16 Chapter 12 – Atoms and the Periodic Table Vocabulary: Atom: the smallest part of matter. Proton: the positive charge of an atom. Electron: the negative charge of an atom. Atomic Number: the number of protons found in each element in the Periodic Table. Neutron: neutral charge of an atom. Has roughly the same mass as protons. The Periodic Table: a list of all the known elements consisting of 18 groups and 7 periods. Atoms have existed since the “Big Bang.” And all elements heavier than Hydrogen were made in the interiors of stars. Matter (including atoms), can’t be created or destroyed. Protons have a positive charge and are always accompanied by the same number of electrons. Protons are 1800 times larger than electrons. p.83- study materials example: If Gold-197 has 118 Neutrons, how many protons and electrons does it have? Answer: 197-118=79 protons and electrons. (Check: 79+118=197) Electrons are all identical, they repel the electrons of nearby atoms, and prevent atomic closeness. Atomic Number is the number of protons in each element listed in the periodic table. Example: Carbon: 6 element in periodic table; 6 protons. th Oxygen: 8 element in periodic table; 8 protons. Neutrons carry a neutral charge and share roughly the same mass as protons. To find the number of neutrons in an atom, subtract the bottom number in an element (decimal number, rounded) from the number of protons. (Example: Cl- 36- 17=19 Neutrons.) Both protons and neutrons are nucleons because they sit inside the nucleus. The Periodic Table -lists all of the known elements. -18 groups going down, 7 periods going across. -size of atom increases as you go down the periodic table and from right to left. -electromagnetic force causes decreasing size in periods. -the most abundant element found on the periodic table is Hydrogen. Groups: 1: Alkali metals 2: Alkaline-earth metals 3-12: Transition metals 13-15: No common names 16: Chaleogens 17: Halogens 18: Noble gases *Inner transition metals: Elements #57-#71 and #89-#103. PSCI 1030 2/19/16 Two types of models: Physical: replicates the object at a convenient scale Conceptual: describes a system. (Atoms are best described using this type of model.) Spectroscope: instrument that separates and spreads light into components. *Each element has a specific, individual light spectrum like a snowflake or fingerprint. No 2 are alike. Ch. 13 – The Atomic Nucleus and Radioactivity Radioactivity: -radioactivity has been around since before the human race -comes from unstable atomic nuclei (unequal protons and neutrons) emitting radiation -humans come into contact with radiation through the Sun and stars. There is also radiation found in bananas. -2 types of cosmic rays: High-energy particles and high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays.) -3 types of radiation: Alpha: carries positive electrical charge Beta: carries negative electrical charge Gamma: carries no charge *the radioactive decay of nature’s elements occur in the soil, air, and interior of Earth. *most of the radiation in Earth’s biosphere occurs in natural background radiation. Strong Nuclear Force: -distance-sensitive attraction between nucleons -neutrons hold the nucleus together *all nucleons attract each other by strong nuclear force with the exception of protons, which repel one another by electric force. Find the rate of decay by calculating half-life of elements. Substances are more active if they have a shorter half-life. Transmutation: changing of one chemical element to another. 2 types of transmutation: 1) Natural transmutation 2) Artificial transmutation Refer to nuclear physics examples: p. 95/96 study materials.
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