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## Genetics Week 4

by: Lauran Notetaker

31

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3

# Genetics Week 4 BIOL/PBIO 3333

Lauran Notetaker
OU

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Week 4
COURSE
Genetics
PROF.
Dr. Jim Thompson
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Genetics
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL/PBIO 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jim Thompson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
February 8, 2016 G. Pedigree 1. Symbols 2. Rules 3. Examples H. Probability - - Other Applications 1. Independent Events 2. Sequence of Events 3. Probability Formula IV. Chromosomes A. Prokaryote vs Eukaryote Probability = n! (p)^s (q)^t s! t! Exam 1 - Friday Will not cover Chi square analysis for Exam 1 20 multiple choice 15 points written response The product rule the probability that both/all of two or more events will occur is the product of the individual probabilities In case where the order is set or not relevant: multiply the individual probabilities 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 Probability = n! (p)^s (q)^t The number of ways the deﬁned combination of events s! t! can occur Event Probability Number of times A (normal) p s B (affected) q t total = n ! means take that number (ex. 3) 3 x 2 x 1 or 8 is 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 6 child family of equal boys and girls Event Probability Number of times A (girl) 1/2 s = 3 B (boy) 1/2 t = 3 total = n = 6 6 x 5 x 4 x 3! (1/2)^3 (1/2)^3 (3 x 2 x 1) is 6 so they cancel (3 x 2 x 1) (3!) 3! both cancel 5 x 4 (1/2)^3 (1/2)^3 = 20(1/2)^6 1 Pascal’s Triangle h = 1 1 (p +q)^1 1 2 1 n = 2 (p + q)^2 1p + 1q 1p^2 + 2pq + 1q^2 February 10, 2016 IV. Chromosomes A. Prokaryote vs Eukaryote B. Statistical Testing Example: linage vs independent assortment 1. Null Hypothesis 2. Chi square Prokaryote - before nucleus very simple cells that require minimum to complete tasks Ex. Bacterial cell, blue-green algae 1. Generally haploid 2. Single “chromosome” or linkage group 3. Linkage group often circular 4. DNA relatively free of protein 5. Coding capacity: example E. Coli about 4.2 x 10^6 bp (base pairs) 6. Lack of membrane means transcription of mRNA can still be in progress when translation into protein begins Genome in bacteria much more efﬁcient than eukaryote no membrane, no golgi Eukaryote Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Double membrane keeps DNA from ribosomes 1. DNA is in the form of a nucleoprotein 2. Each chromosome contains a single linear DNA molecule the “unineme” model — • — • — • 3. Coding capacity: example • • • • • • • • • Humans about 3 x 10^9 bp 4. Nuclear membrane separates DNA transcription from translation - separates from making mRNA to using mRNA - don’t use immediately like prokaryotes Nucleolar Organizer where al ribosomal RNA has been stored Not coding - telomeres (at the end of each chromosome) No known function Single copy sequences pseudogenes = “false” - untranscribed gene “ghost” Multiple copy sequences repealed centromeric DNA sequences transposable elements, like LINES and SINES transposable elements - “jumping genes” LINES - long interspersed elements 1-5 kb human 20,000 - 40,000 copies in genome SINES - short interspersed elements about 10% microsattelites February 12, 2016 Exam 1

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