Week 5 notes PSYC 429
Week 5 notes PSYC 429 Psyc 429
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 429 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Robert Tigner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychlogy at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Week 5 2-16 & 2-18 Darwin’s Century Slide 1: Who came up with the Theory of evolution? Physiognomy? Slide 2: Darwin 1809-1882 Family was wealthy and successful his dad was a wealthy MD. Mother a Wedgwood china family. Grandfather Erasmus Darwin wrote a theory of evolution in his book Zoonomia. Darwin comes up with the mechanism of evolution. Slide 3: Education. Average high school student. Father was disappointed said he can’t be a doctor will be a disappointment. Attempted med school right out of high school. Can’t make it through one year. Can’t handle the horror of surgery without painkillers. Learns taxidermy in med school. Attends Cambridge to become a clergyman in the Anglican church. Liberal arts school read great works in original language. Only sciences were electives lectures with fee for hobby courses. Henslow- Clergyman also interested in botany and naturalist. Darwin goes to everyone of his lectures and learns how to preserve plants from him. Finds his zeal in life. “Henslow’s shadow” Darwin finds rare bettles puts one into his mouth to catch a third. It spits out acid lets him know this is really what he wants to do. Gets an average degree. Slide 4: 1831-1836 voyage on the Beagle Mission was to make detailed maps of the south American shore. Want to find a faster way to get through South America (this was before the technology existed for the panama canal) Robert FitzRoy- was the captain. Wanted a companion who could help with scientific work. Needed a natural scientist. Not a paid job companion had to pay their own way. Henslow can’t leave his job but recommends Darwin. Darwin is excited by the adventure. Fitzroy doesn’t think that Darwin will work because he believes in Phisogamy precursor to phrenology due to the shape of his nose. Darwin is very likeable and does well in his interview with FitzRoy. Thinks he can have good intellectual conversations with. Darwin’s uncle talks his dad into letting Darwin go. Everyone in his life very religious and conservative which the theory of evolution will disprove in their mind think he will find proof of the bible Slide 5: map takes more than five years. Darwin was a terrible sailor always seasick. Spends a lot of time on land collecting animal species Slide 6: On the Beagle- questions the bible due to geological information and the theory of Catastrophism- everything was created by catastrophes Uniformitarianism- slow and gradual changes to the landscapes. Henslow wants him to prove it wrong but he proves it right with fossils stratified layers of fossils. Concludes that earth is older than 6000 years. Discovered a wooly mammoth and other fossils of animals that no longer exist. Takes samples of new species where he found it and how it lived. Henslow stored and wrote articles in Darwin’s name about new life forms. Darwin always asked the question of functionality. He throws an iguana into the water and it came back multiple times. It has no natural enemy on shore but does on the water. Spends a month on the Galapagos islands tortoises, finches. Islands on equator tens of miles apart separate ecosystems. Strong currents with high winds. Beak structure of finches. Slide 7: writes ab book when he returns home. Witnessed an earthquake. Helps him to believe that catastrophism is wrong. Marries his cousin Emma Wedge wood. Interested in the breeding of pigeons and dogs. Homing pigeon breeding. Dog breads, first Westminster dog show in 1877 they were aware that they could deliberately create new species of dogs. Slide 8: Malthus an economist looks at the change in food and population. Thinks at some time the lines will match up we will have just enough food to keep us alive. Thinks we shouldn’t cure disease to prevent the day when the lines match up. City living. Animals are all on the brink of extinction there day is finding food. This makes him think about his theory of evolution. Those that eat live those that live reproduce. Advantages vs disadvantages over time leads to change. Slide 9: natural deviations give advantages and disadvantages. Results of the preserved variations may result in the variation of a new species. Slide 10: Finches and diets nuts or worms. What they eat and where they live. Bird with stronger jaw can eat nuts easier. Long curved beak good for getting worms and grubs out of stuff. Finches are his best data Slide 11: Arasmus Darwin 1808- all coming from one Lamarck 1809- thought that acquired characteristics could be passed on. Epigenetics enviorment is now know to have some effect Darwin 1840s- like confessing a murder- going away from the bible offensive to religious thinkers Doesn’t publish till 1859. Thinks he would be imprisoned. Herbert Spencer 1850-90s- survival of the fittest as a mechanism for for progressive individuation . Lead to theory off Social Darwinism. This idea grew at the same time. Alfred Wallace 1858- Evolution through natural Selection same as Darwins theory. Had taken a trip on the Amazon river. Fire on the boat stranded in the ocean for ten days. Both Wallace and Darwin present papers in 1858- at a botany conference. Since Darwin had evidence he was able to get credit Slide 12: 1859- Origin of Species 490 pages rapidly sells out and is translated and spreads around the world. Much more data driven than Wallace. Unlike prior theories does not assume a motivating purpose up front Slide 13: Evolution affects psychology- Mental processes across animals- prior to this we were thought to be categorially different than animals. Individual differences become interesting who will live and who will die. Functionality inspires many psychologists. Kept humans out of origin of species. The Descent of Man 1871- puts humans into the mix. The expression of emotions in Man and Animals 1872- dogs, monkeys, emotions in the mind might be the same A biographical Sketch of an infant 1877- beginning in developmental psychology. Describes his baby as he observes reflexes are well developed while other voluntary motor skills are undeveloped Slide 14: Burried inside of West Minster abby near newton Slide 15: Blind Watchmaker- Richard Dawkins 2/18/16 Psychological times project. Format takes time and needs to be good. Should look like a newspaper can be small font, three to four columns, can add ads, 4 pages. Use sports and entertainment too. Obituaries of psychologists and famous people. Timelines. Side columns. Can bridge things like elections Slide 16: normal? Wrangler? Who created the correlation coefficient? Slide 17: Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton (1822-1911) Gentleman scholar. Intellectual promise from the start. Very intelligent trilingual, exceptional IQ like J.S. Mill. Born intelligent and self-motivated. Family also wanted him to go to med school even though he wanted to be a wrangler. His family was more wealthy than Darwin’s. must go to med school to get inheritance. Didn’t like the torcher of surgery without anesthesia. Operating room on top floor so the community is less likely to hear screams. Switched to Cambridge to become a wrangler- best of the best math student after taking an over a 24 hour test best students are wranglers. Has wanted to be one since he was a little kid. There were students who were better at math than him and he wasn’t a wrangler. He believes that these other students must have better genetics than him- Nature standpoint. Dad makes him go back to med school. His dad dies during med school and he gets his inheritance and leaves med school taking a couple years off. Slide 18: sees a phrenologist- says he wasn’t born a math genius but was born an adventure. Goes to tropical south Africa. Was a dangerous expedition. Was a good adventure. Wrote a book Tropical South Africa 1853. Sponsors Nile expositions, writes field guides. Has a knack for turning things into numbers- quantifies beauty of women in Africa and England, barometric pressure- first weather map (has his friends write down barometric pressure at the same time each day. Noticed iso bars, and relationship with weather), Heights of people, quantifying intelligence. This is influenced by Quetelet’s normal curve Slide 19: Quetelet writes the Average Man and shows that the normal curve can be used to predict the future with normally distributed data. Normal within one standard devation of mean. Abnormal- away from the mean. Galton immediately thinks about intelligence within the normal curve. Slide 20: Galton is fully convinced that Nature is the way you get intelligence. Heredity Genius is written in 1869. Finds evidence regarding intelligence and nature as eminence in the top of your field. High intelligence in the top portion of each jobs. General pop 1:4000; Close realtion (parent) 1:10; extended family 1:40. This is what he uses as proof that being in the top of your field is hereditary. He doesn’t see that this is just as good an argument for nature because of parental influence. Slide 21: English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture 1874 Mails survey’s for the first time in social science uses responses as data sets. Asked questions to about 100 propionate scientists asked nature nurture questions. Reads the data that nature was more import may have been biased. Popularized Nature/Nurture phrase. Pioneers Twin study- 100 pairs- forgot to ask if they were identical or fraternal created his pattern because he forgot this question. Slide 22: Galton invents the term Eugenics- selective breeding of humans to create more intelligent children. Thought the government should give intelligent people incentives to reproduce. (Only focuses on the intelligence side unlike later on when people with less intelligence where controlled). The people he is identifying as eminent are too old. Wants to identify intelligent people at a younger age. Slide 23: Eugenics buildings in US and in England government keeps track of crime disabilities and intelligence, becomes a contest for fittest family in America. The people with disabilities where seen as burdens- insane, feeble minded, criminals. Mindset of get ride of defective by American society and we shared thoughts with other nations. Slide 24: Galton’s intelligence test- Anthropometric test- measured head circumference (fit with gender bias), reaction times (faster is better-more intelligent?), acuity (better vision means one part of brain works well the rest probably does too), discrimination thresholds. “not everything that can be counted counts” tested over 9,000 in 1884. People payed him to be tested. Slide 25: Tried to analysis data with limited statistical measures. Average of parent height on graph with large bubbles. Tendency for tall children to have tall parents. Finds line of best fit and identifies slope and correlation coefficient. Slide 26: Gives us the first correlation coefficient, Pearson improves on it during the next year and comes up with the Pearson’s rho. Pearson writes his biography. Notices Regression toward Mediocrity- toward the mean. Outliers occur but are generally followed by less extreme values. Cattell’s later correlations between anthropometrics and intelligence: r=-.02 used college GPA for intelligence. Slide 27: measures the effectiveness of prayer. To make a cause and effect study for prayer. Pray or not pray by week. Talked to parlament about it and they said no. Quantified finger prints and how to use them presents them to scottland yard. First police department to use fingerprints hard to use at first.
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