Week 5 PSYC 368
Week 5 PSYC 368 psyc 368,
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc 368, at Truman State University taught by Dr. Angela Knoverek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see psychological testing in Psychlogy at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
2/15/16 Psyc testing Chapters 5 & 6 Reliability and validity Reliability- Consistency of measurement Reliability coefficient is an index of reliability a proportion that indicates the ratio between true score and total score Error Variance standard deviation squared Measurement error- what is the error of measured variables. Random (not predictable) or systematic (typically constant or proportionate predictable.) Know how to use it when interpreting test scores and talk about reliability and validity There is validity and limitations to projective tests. Test construction-variations within items and between tests. Item sampling or content sampling. Between forms. Test Administration- Sources of error may stem from the testing environment Also test taker variables such as pressing emotional problems physical discomfort, lack of sleep (slap happy?), and the effect of drugs or medication (loopy). Examiner related variables such as appearance (good or bad characteristics) and demeanor (method of interaction.) may play a role. Test Scoring and interpretation: computer testing reduces errors in test scoring but many tests still require interpretation like projective tests. Subjectivity in scoring can enter into behavior assessment. Other Sources of error variance: Surveys and poles margin of error sampling error. Test retest reliability: an estimate of reliability obtained by correlating pairs of scores from the same people on two different administration of the same test. Within six months.4Most appropriate for variables that should be stable over tie like personality and not appropriate for variables expected to change over time like mood. Estimates tend to decrease as time passes With intervals over 6 months the estimate of reliability is called the coefficient of stability. Time spent scoring and interpreting is not reimbursable. Your mood when grading can change while grading. Coefficient of equivalence- degree of relationship between forms Parrallel- variences of observed forms are equal Alternate forms- have adaptions or accommodations for people with disabilities. Check reliability by administering them to the same groupl Split half- do evens or add. Divide into equivalent haves Inter item consistency- how related are they items on the test. Coefficient alpha: 0-1 Inter scorer reliability- consistency between scorers. With regard to a particular. Must be within the one rank of truth helpful for licensing. Codes behaviors. CANS. It is often used with behavioral measures, guards against bias and idiosyncrasies in scoring. Coefficient of inter-score reliability-The scores from different raters are correlated with o e another. Autism codes by how close teacher and students were standing. Within four feet positive interaction no IRB. Got millions of dollars. Reliability estimates depends on what you are measuring. Look at the nature of test. Homogeneous or heterogeneous of items. Variation in behavior rating scales. Characteristic, ability or traite is presumed to be dynamic or static, range of test scores is not restricted? speed or power test? Criterion referenced (Must meet standards to move up or pass)? True-Score- reflects a test takers ability. Geralization theory Standard error of measurement SEM- Higher the reliability lower standard of error. Standard error off difference- between tests or between individuals on same test. Chapter 6 Validity. Reliabilty and not valid- person is always 15minutes late. Reliable and valid on target Unreliable and not valid all over. Validity- how well a test measures what it purports to measure in context. Validation- gather info about validity Content validity- is it covering what is supposed to. How adequately does it sample behaviors? Look at it with employment. If more than half of raters say it is valid it has some. Look at cultural. Criterion validity- standards of evaluation have to score a certain level. Don’t usually get to review questions. Relevant, valid and uncontaminated (not predicting who will pass). Drivers insurance is contaminated uses predictors. Concurrent validity: an index of the degree to which a test score is reatatied to some criterion measure obtained at the same time. Predictive validity: how the test score predicts criterion in the future. Operational defiant may lead to antisocial as an adult. Wouldn’t make a test for sexual offending risk. Construct- Within frame work Face validity- relevant of the test items. If it measures what is on the face of it high face validity. Self report high. Projective low. MMPI says that it is a problem already it is not predictive The validity coefficient: a correlation coefficient that provides a measure of the relationship between test scores and scores on the criterion measure. Validity coefficients are affected by restriction or inflation of range. Incremental validity: the degree to which an additional predictor explains something about the criterion measure that is not explained by predictors already in use To what extent does a test predict the criterion over and above variance Expectancy Data- how many do we expect to pass or fail. Letter grades, job settings annual performance review. Expaectancy charts help you know what job skills are looked for. Construct validity- the ability of a test to measure a therorized construct that purports to mesasure. Homogeneity, changes with age, pretest posttest, distinct groups.convergent evidence( construct validation direction of scores ). Bias- understand what is impacting the test from being acurrate and impartial. Rating error – misuse of rating scale. Teachers who score overly high or low scores. Halo effect- a tendency to give a particular person a higher rating than he or she objectively deserves because of favorable overall impression. Picking favorites, overall impressions. Example: Buying new album of favorite artist Fairness- the extent to which a test is used in an impartial just and equitable way.
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