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Week 3&4 Notes

by: Natania Lipp

Week 3&4 Notes PSYC 354

Natania Lipp


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About this Document

These notes cover this week and last week's notes, since there was a snow day and less material was covered than in a usual week. It includes measurements, and family culture.
Cross-Cultural Psychology
Susan Lee
Class Notes
cross-cultural psyc, Psychology, Culture, psyc354, family, measurement, siblings, Parents, communication
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natania Lipp on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 354 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Susan Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland - College Park.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
  Representative sample  ● Characteristics of the sample accurately reflect the characteristics of the population  ● The smaller the sample, the larger the sampling error, because there are greater result  of chance factors.  ● The larger the sample, the lower the sampling error (extent to which the sample is  different from the population it represents.)  ● Mean scores in a random sample is a good estimation of population  Observation in Cross­Cultural Psychology  ● Naturalistic observation​ recording people’s behaviors in their natural environments.  ○ You don’t manipulate their variables, or ask people to participate in a study. You  just observe things that are already happening.  ○ The experimenter does not interfere with anything in the environment.  ● Laboratory observation: subjects are brought in and the psychologist design specific  situation.  ○ Experimenter controls the environment.  Survey Methods  ● Surveys​: most common technique of data collection in cross­cultural psychology  ● Advantages​: it can be anonymous which would make more accurate results, leads to  less bias, you can get answers from a lot of people with very little cost/time  ● Disadvantages​: mostly open ended questions, which make it hard to measure certain  variables, unclear if the respondent is answering honestly or not (example: drug use)  ● 2 Types of surveys  ○ Indirect surve: Does not maintain a relationship with the correspondent. A  survey is send out via email and participants take it on their own.  ○ Direct surve: Maintains a relationship with the correspondent. Interviewer can  maintain some kind of contact.  Example: telephone surveys, or face­to­face interviews  ­ People’s physical similarities affect how honest they are with each other,  so race, gender, age and other factors of the interviewer should be taken  into consideration.       Survey Biases  ● Study: Men and women were asked the same questions about sexual practices. When  they thought that the lie detector was on, they gave really similar responses. When they  were not made to believe they were attached to the detector, men said that they began  sexual activity at a younger age, engaged in sex more often, and had more sexual  partners than women.  ○ When they are provided the option to lie, they make themselves fit the stereotype  of their gender.  ● Cultural differences in the ways people see themselves.  ○ Example: Americans usually see themselves as being hardworking and  conscientious  ­ In Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and other nations, they see themselves  as hardworking and conscientious regardless of their socioeconomic  status.    Experimental studies: in an experiment, you randomly assign subjects into condi. ons​ ○ By varying conditions, it allows you to detect whether there is a change in the  behavior of the participant.  ○ Independent variable: the one that you, as the experimenter, have control of.  ○ Dependent variable: the variable that you can measure the change in.  ○ Example: finding whether prozac can decrease level of depression. Independent  variable = a dosage of prozac or a placebo pill. Dependent variable = level of  depression and whether it changes between the two groups.  Content Analysis​: systematically organizes and summarizes  ● Manifes​ what is actually said/written (text)  ● Laten: the meaning of what was said, content of communication (subtext)  ○ Example: Parent, “Oh, sure you can go out tonight!” If they say it sarcastically,  the latent meaning means no you cannot go out. But if you’re just listening of the  manifest meaning, you know that they’re just rudely telling you there’s no way  you’re allowed to leave the house tonight.)  ● Two step process:  ○ First level/concrete: Identify coding categories  ○ Second level coding: More abstract, requires that you find out what first level  categories mean.  ● Think about content analysis when you do Paper 1 ­ the interview. Try to understand  both what they are saying, and what the latent meaning is underneath what they say as  well.  Cultural Learning  ● Humans engage in cultural learning.  ● Shared intentionality allows for us to have cultural learning  ○ Children understand intentionality because they have social learning capacities.  They learn from observing the consequences of others’ behavior.   ­ Example: If a kid sees you burn your hand touching a stove, the kid knows not to  touch the stove.   Social learning allows us to have unique abilities.  ● People learnfromothers and hrough​ others.     Enculturation and Socialization  ­ We want people to become ​ompetent and productiveadults ­ consistent across  cultures.  ­ However: different cultures have different meanings for “competent” and “productive”.  ­ Example: Productive for women could mean you keep a good home, do the cooking, and  take care of the kids.   ­ Socialization​ : process by which we leran and internalize rules and patterns of society  ­ Example: The clothing, toys, etc. for girls and boys are visually very different. Girls clothes  are pink; boys are blue. Girls have little cute legos and boys have big ones with trucks and  other “manly” things.  ­ Enculturation​ : process of youngsters learning and adopting ways and manner of their  culture.     Culture, Parenting, and Families  ­ One of the most important ways we learn is through our families.  ­ Family​ : the most important microsystem to child’s development.  ­ Margaret Mead talked about how by observing parents, we are observing the essence of  culture.   ­ Studying parenting within cultural context tells us what is important to that culture.  ­ Example: lower SES parents usually use strict obedience ­­ parents decide things and  discipline with their children without speaking about it. On the other hand, higher SES tend  to reason with their children and allow for negotiation.  ­ Example 2: technology plays a huge part in the cultural context. Owning the newest  technology determines SES to some extent and also dictates the kind of communication  that family members have with each other.  ­ There are phobias about talking to people on the phone, because there is no delay and  you don’t have the time to think about what you’re going to say like you do over email or  texting.  Whiting and Whitings’ Six Cultures Study  ­ Anthropologists collected field data in Mexico, India, Kenya, USA, Okinawa, and  Philippines.  ­ They examined child rearing and children’s behavior in varied cultural contexts  ­ Child’s behavior and personality is intimately connected to characteristics of broader  ecology.  ­ Kids learn to adapt to the environment.  ­ Women’s work roles contribute to children’s social behaviors  Diversity in Parenting as a Function of Economics  ­ Diverse economic conditions produce socialization processes that vary across cultures.  ­ Caregiving environment reflects a set of goals ordered in importance:  ­ Physical health and survival  ­ Promotion of behaviors leading to self­sufficiency  ­ Behaviors that promote other cultural values, i.e. prestige.  Parenting Goals and Beliefs  ­ Parenting goals provide motivation and framework for raising children.  ­ Parenting goals lead to variations in parenting behaviors across cultures.  ­ Parental ethnotheories: parental cultural belief systems.  ­ Parents’ cultural belief systems motivate and shape what parents think is the “right” way  to parent.  ­ Tricky line for therapists ­ you don’t want to tell the parents how to do their jobs, but if a  child is denied basic human rights the therapist will have to investigate while respecting the  boundary.  Global Parenting Styles (will be on test!!)  ● Authoritarian parents: expect unquestioned obedience; see child as someone who  needs to be controlled  ○ Expect children to do what they say without asking questions  ○ Necessary with defiant, challenging kids  ● Permissive​ parents: warm and nurturing; allow children to regulate own lives with few  guidelines.  ○ Aka “free range” parents  ● Authoritative parents sensitive to child’s maturity; firm, fair, reasonable and affectionate   ○ Oldest children tend to have these kind of parents, and then parents tend to get  less strict as they have more children.  ○ Teacher’s example: her son comes into her room in the middle of the night  saying that he had a bad dream and can’t go back into his room. A permissive  parent might let him sleep with her, but if she does that then he’ll repeat this  action and she’ll be reinforcing the fear that does not exist. So being sensitive but  making him go back to bed is authoritative.  ● Uninvolved ​parents: do not respond appropriately to children, indifferent  ○ The worst type of parenting  ○ Psychologically, kids who are beat do better than the kids who are neglected.  ­ Why: kids often act up to get their parents’ attention ­ they need some  form of contact with their parent, even if it’s negative.   ­ They have no communication/feedback from their parents, which equates  to that they are not even important enough to be beaten.  Behaviors and Strategies  ● One of the most representative cultural differences in parenting behaviors is sleeping  arrangements.  ● Studies using HOME Inventory describe three general areas in which cultures vary:  ○ Warmth and responsiveness  ○ Discipline  ○ Stimulation/teaching  ● Parenting beliefs and practices are congruent with developmental goals dictated by  culture  ○ At age 7, parents stop touching their sons. Fathers and sons start wrestling, and playing  sports instead of affectionate touching  ● Discipline = to teach; teaching kids by showing them the pattern of actions and  consequences  Domain­Specific Approach to Parenting  ● Criticism of global parenting: ignores differences due to the particular child, situation, and  context  ● Domain­specific approach:   ○ Focuses on parenting behaviors rather than general styles  ○ Emphasizes complexity of socialization process  ○ Domains include: protection, control, reciprocity, guided learning, and group  participation.  ○ Parenting practices must be appropriate for domain in which child is functioning  Siblings  ● Siblings play important role in socialization of children  ● Siblings can fulfill many roles: tutors, buddies, playmates, caretakers  ● Skills important to culture are learned from siblings: perspective­taking, social  understanding, conflict negotiation  ● Repeated and prolonged interaction means older siblings can be influential role model to  younger siblings   


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