Psych 212- Studying A Child's World Chapter 1 Notes
Psych 212- Studying A Child's World Chapter 1 Notes Psych 212
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
PSYCH 212 Chapter 1 Studying a Child’s World The Study of Child Development: Then & Now - Individuals grow in patterned ways & they show consistency over time with respect to their unique characteristics. - The field of child development focuses on the scientific study of systematic processes of change and stability in human children. Early Approaches - It was Charles Darwin, originator of the theory of evolution, who first emphasized the developmental nature of infant behavior. The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts The process of change & stability that developmental scientists study occur in all domains of the self & throughout all of childhood & adolescence. Domains of Development - Developmental scientists study 3 domains of the self: Physical development growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health. Cognitive development learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. Psychosocial development emotions, personality, and social relationships. Periods of Development - Division of the life span into periods of development is a social construction: a concept/practice that may appear natural & obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention of a particular culture/society. - Our understanding of childhood itself can be viewed as a social construction - The concept of adolescence as a period of development in industrial societies is quite recent; until the 20 century, young people in the U.S. were considered children until they left school, married/got a job, and entered the adult world. Typical Major Developments in Five Periods of Child Development Age Period Physical Cognitive Psychosocial Developments Developments Developments Prenatal Period Conception occurs by Abilities to learn, Fetus responds to a (conception to normal remember, & respond mother’s voice & birth) fertilization/other to sensory stimuli are develops a preference means. developing. for it. The genetic endowment interacts w/ environmental influences from the start. Basic body structures & organs form; brain growth spurt begin. Physical growth is the most rapid in the life span. Vulnerability to environmental influence is great. Infancy & All senses & body Abilities to learn & Attachments to Toddlerhood (birth systems operate at remember are parents & others birth to varying present, even in early form. to age 3) degrees. weeks. Selfawareness The brain grows in Use of symbols & develops. complexity & is ability to solve Shift from highly sensitive to problems ndvelop by dependence to environmental end of 2 year. autonomy occurs. influence. Comprehension & Interest in other Physical growth & use of language children increases. development of motor develop rapidly. skills are rapid. Early Childhood Growth is steady; Thinking is Selfconcept & (ages 3 to 6) appearance becomes somewhat egocentric, understanding of more slender & but understanding of emotions become proportions more other people’s more complex; self adult like. perspectives grows. esteem is global. Appetite diminishes Cognitive immaturity Independence, & sleep problems are results in some initiative, & self common. illogical ideas about control increase. Handedness appears; the world. Gender identity fine & gross motor Memory & language develops skills and strength improve. Play becomes more improve. Intelligence becomes imaginative, more more predictable. elaborate, & usually more social. Altruism, aggression, and fearfulness are common. Other children become more important. Middle Childhood Growth slows. Egocentrism Selfconcept becomes (ages 6 to 11) Strength & athletic diminishes more complex, skills improve. Children begin to affecting selfesteem. Respiratory illnesses think logically but Coregulation reflects are common; health concretely gradual shift in generally better than Memory & language control from parents at any other time in skills increase to child. life span. Cognitive gains Peers assume central permit children to importance. benefit from formal schooling Some children show special educational needs & strengths Adolescence (ages Physical growth & Ability to think Search for identity, 11 to about 20) other changes are abstractly & use including sexual rapid & profound. scientific reasoning identity, becomes Reproductive develops. central. maturity occurs Immature thinking Relationships w/ Major health risks persists in some parents are generally arise from behavioral attitude & behaviors. good. issues (e.g., eating Education focuses on Peer group may exert disorders & drug prep. for a positive/negative abuse) college/vocation. influence. - Although individual differences exist in the way children deal w/ the characteristic events & issues of each period, developmental scientists suggest that certain basic needs must be met & certain tasks mastered for normal development to occur. Influences on Development - Students of development are interested in universal developmental processes experienced by all children; they must also consider individual differences in characteristics, influences, & developmental outcomes. Heredity, Environment, & Maturation - Some influences on development originate primarily w/ heredity, inborn traits/characteristics inherited from a child’s biological parents - Other influences come largely from the inner & outer environment, the world outside the selfbeginning in the womb, & the learning that comes from experience – including socialization, a child’s induction into the value system of the culture. - The nature (heredity) vs. nurture (environmental influences both before & after birth) debate. - Typical changes of infancy & early childhood, such as the emergence of the abilities to walk & talk, are tied to maturation of the body and the brain – the unfolding of a universal natural sequence of physical & behavioral changes. - To understand child development, we need to look at the inherited characteristics as well as the environmental characteristics. Contexts of Development Family: The nuclear family is a household unit generally consisting of one or two parents and their children, whether biological, adopted, or stepchildren. Historically, the nuclear family has been the dominant family unit in the U.S. and other western societies. However, this type of family is different today; instead of a large rural family (in which parents and children worked side by side on family farm) we now see smaller, urban families in which both parents work outside the home & children spend much of their time in school/child care. - In many societies in Asia, Africa, & Latin America & among some U.S. families, the extended family – a multigenerational kinship network of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and more distant relatives – is the traditional family form. Culture & Race/Ethnicity: Culture refers to a society’s/group’s way of life, including customs, traditions, laws, knowledge, beliefs, values, language, & physical products, from tools to artworks – all of the behavior & attitudes that are learned, shared & transmitted among members of a social group; constantly changing (often through contact with other cultures) - An ethnic group consists of people united by a distinctive culture, ancestry, religion, language, or national origin, all of which contribute to a sense of shared identity & shared attitudes, beliefs, & values. By 2050, due to rising immigration & high birthrates among immigrant families, ethnic minorities in the U.S. are expected to become the majority. - The proportion of minority children is increasing & is predicted that minority children will make up more than half of the child population by 2023. - In time, immigrants tend to acculturate or adapt by learning the language, customs & attitudes needed to get along in the dominant culture, while trying to preserve some of their cultural practices & values. - A term such as African American, Hispanic, or white can be an ethnic gloss: an overgeneralization that obscures or blurs such variations. Socioeconomic Status & Neighborhood: A family’s socioeconomic status (SES) is based on family income & the educational & occupational levels of the adults in the household. SES relates to developmental processes (such as mother’s verbal interactions w/ their children) and developmental outcomes (such as health & cognitive performance). - More than half of the world’s population (53%) lives on less than the international poverty standard of $2 a day and 19% live on less than $1 a day. - Child poverty in the U.S. has increased since the 1990s & poorer children throughout North America have become poorer in comparison w/ the rest of the child population. - Poverty rates vary by geographic region & are highest among racial & ethnic minorities; - Poverty is stressful & can damage the physical, cognitive & psychosocial wellbeing of children & families. Poor children are more likely to go hungry, have frequent illnesses, lack access to health care, experience accidents, violence, & family conflicts, and to show emotional/behavioral problems. - Threats to wellbeing multiply if several risk factors – conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative outcome – are present. - Composition of neighborhood affects the way children develop. Normative & Nonnormative Influences - Normative influences – biological/environmental events that affect many or most people in a society in similar ways. Normative agegraded influences are highly similar for people in a particular age group. Normative historygraded influences are significant events (e.g., the great depression or World War 2) that shape the behavior & attitudes of a historical generation: a group of people who experience the event at a formative time in their lives. Cohort: a group of people born at about the same time; not the same as a historical generation. Nonnormative influences are unusual events that have a major impact on individual lives b/c they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle; either typical events that happen at an atypical time of life (e.g., death of a parent when a child is young) or atypical events (e.g., surviving a plane crash). Timing of Influences: Critical or Sensitive Periods - Konrad Lorenz (1957) founded the phenomenon of imprinting – the instinctive form of learning in which during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother; Lorenz said that imprinting is the result of a predisposition toward learning: the readiness of an organism’s nervous system to acquire certain info during a brief critical period in early life. - A critical period is a specific time when a given event, or its absence, has a specific impact on development. If a necessary event doesn’t occur during a critical period of maturation, normal development won’t occur; & the resulting abnormal patterns may be irreversible. - Since many aspects of development, even in the biological/neurological domain, have been found to show plasticity, or modifiability of performance, it may be more useful to think about sensitive periods, when a developing person is especially responsive to certain kinds of experiences. An Emerging Consensus 1. All domains of development are interrelated. 2. Normal development includes a wide range of individual differences. 3. Children help shape their development & influence others’ responses to them. 4. Historical & cultural contexts strongly influence development. 5. Early experience is important, but children can be remarkably resilient. 6. Development in childhood affects development throughout the life span.
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