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Biology 102 Notes, Week 6

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 6 BIOL102

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These are the notes for the week of 2/16-2/18, from red and green algae to mosses.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
o Red Algae § Phycobilins – red pigments § Calcium deposits in cells walls (feels crusty, rigid) § Live in warm marine water § Encourages community life § Plant-like • No flagellated states • Has “roots” that hold it down, a “stalk”, and a leaf-like blade. o They’re in quotes because it’s not a plant! § Carrageenan and agar o Green Algae § The most noticeable § Closely related to plants • Charophytes • Chlorophytes (majority) § Chlorophyll a § Cellulose cell walls § Symbiosis with fungi: lichens (sea lettuce) o Amoebas § Pseudopodia § Unicellular § Entamoeba histolytica: amoebic dysentery § Slime molds • Plasmodial slime mold o Multinucleate super cell • Under stress, it will form a hard shell, but it can grow up to 2m o Sporangium § Spore producing structure § Spore – haploid cell § Very resistant, capable of producing adult organism o Social Amoebas: cellular slime molds § Spore – single celled reproductive structure capable of becoming an adult § Crossroads to multicellular organisms o Multicellular evolution happened in fungi, plants, and animals Fungi – life moves onto dry land - Fungal characteristics o Absorptive heterotrophs (means they have external digestion and absorb digested food back across the cell membrane) o Multicellular § Except yeasts and chytrids § No tissue differentiation o Cell walls made of chitin o No motile cells o Around 70,000 named species (that we know of) § Molds, mushrooms, and yeasts - Fungal nutrient lifestyles o 1/3 Saprobes (decomposers, which we see more often) § Turkey tail fungus o 1/3 Parasites § Corn smut § Black stem rust (wheat) § Ergots (rye) – where LSD comes from o 1/3 Mutualistic Symbionts § Mychorrhizae • Fungus root § Lichen - Body structure o Hyphae – filament of cells § Will either be haploid or dikaryotic (n+n, two haploid nuclei that don’t fuse) § Cross walls or no cross walls (what we think of as cell walls) § Specialized to trap prey § Mycelium – mass of hyphae § Can grow a kilometer overnight o Most of fungus is underground o Reproductive structures (fruiting bodies) are above ground § Produces spores (in the “gills” of a mushroom) § Can appear overnight - The life cycle o 3 phases (multicellular): haploid-dikaryotic-diploid o Reproduce sexually (meiosis) and/or asexually (mitosis by spores) § Unicellular reproductive cell § Disperse through space and time o Sexual involves mating strains (+/-) § Smells like rotting meat to attract flies for spore dispersal - Chytrids o Flagellated cells o Some parasitic § Affecting amphibian population • Causes a plaque on the skin of the amphibians so their skin can’t breathe and they die - Zygomycetes o Zygote fungi § Form zygospores in sexual reproduction o No cross walls o Most are saprobes o Rhizopus § Bread mold § Fruit rot - Ascomycetes o Sac fungi o Cross walls in hyphae o Predominantly haploid o For asci (sacs) during sexual reproduction o Examples § Morels and truffles § Yeasts § Penicillium - Basidiomycetes o Club fungi (they literally look like clubs, these are the ones that we eat) § Basidia o Basidiocarps § Shell fungi o Honey mushrooms (3.4 miles in diameter, 1600 football fields, 2400 years old, 100’s of tons) § Found in Oregon o Fungi grows in “fairy circles” § Spore grows in all directions, causing mushrooms to pop up in a circular formation - Lichen o Composite organisms (fungus/algae) or (fungus/cyanobacteria) o Pioneer indicator species o A lot of coloration (mostly green due to algae) o They look crusty - Ecological: Mycorrhizae o This is how we have sustainability with crop production o Parasitic: § Chestnut blight § Athlete’s foot § Ringworm § Yeast infections o Used as antibiotics o You can grow your own mushrooms o Some mushrooms are more dangerous (the destroying angel – amanita virosa – mushroom) o Hallucinogenic mushrooms o Salem witch trials could have been a result of ergot on rye (LSD) Plants - Land adapted, multicellular, photoautotrophic organisms (with very few exceptions) - Evolved on land with fungi – around over 500 million years ago - Plant evolution o Charophyte: algal ancestors § Mostly fresh water with some calcium deposits § Shared traits with plants • Chlorophyll a, b • Cell division process • Spore wall compounds (sporopollenin -> pollen) o Evolutionary success for land involved eliminating water - Derived land adaptations o Cuticle: prevents water loss o Stomata: gas exchange § No longer aquatic, no longer needs to rely on water o Vascular tissue system (xylem and phloem) § Moved from water to soils § Larger sized due to lignin o Pollen – fertilization without water (plant sperm) o Seeds – baby in a protective lunchbox, have a higher level of survivability § Works like an egg - Plant evolution progression o Natural selection pressures of increased UV light triggered changes in their sexual life style § Alternation of generations • Sometimes the zygote splits into a diploid body, sometimes it doesn’t • st • Shift in dominance of gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) - 1 Plants: the bryophytes o Nonvascular plants § Mosses, hornworts, liverworts o Characteristics § Found in moist areas § Pretty small (around the size of a dime) § No vascular tissue • No roots, leaves, or stems § Require water for fertilization • Flagellated sperm • Asexual reproduction § Adaptations: cuticle, embryo o Life cycle of the mosses: § Gametophyte stage predominates life-cycle § o Peat moss bog in Norway § Rich in carbon, used as a fuel, produces compound that keeps it from decaying § However, produces more carbon emissions than coal § Very absorbent § Highly acidic, has antiseptic properties


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