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Psych 212- Week 5 Notes

by: Jordan Notetaker

Psych 212- Week 5 Notes Psych 212

Jordan Notetaker
Penn State

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Developmental Psychology
Dr. Hunt
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 212 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Hunt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Psych 212­ Chapter 8 Foundations of Psychosocial Development ­ Personality : the relatively consistent blend of emotions, temperament, thought, &  behavior that makes each person unique.   Emotions such as fear, are subjective reactions to experience that are associated w/  physiological & behavioral changes.  o Culture influences the way people feel about a situation & the way they show  their emotions. E.g., some Asian cultures, which stress social harmony,  discourage expressions of anger but place much importance on shame. The  opposite is often true in American culture, which stresses self­expression, self­ assertion, & self­esteem.   First signs of emotion: o Crying: the basic hunger cry (a rhythmic cry, not always associated w/ hunger),  the angry cry (variation of the rhythmic cry, in which excess air is forced through  the vocal cords), the pain cry (a sudden onset of loud crying w/o preliminary  moaning, sometimes followed by holding the breath), the frustration cry (two or  three drawn out cries, w/ no prolonged breath holding).  o To make sure infants develop the ability to manage/regulate their emotional state,  prevent distress.  When do emotions appear? o Emotional development is an orderly process; complex emotions unfold from  simpler ones.  o Self­conscious emotions, such as embarrassment, envy, & empathy arise only  after children have developed self­awareness: the cognitive understanding that  they have a recognizable identity, separate & different from the rest of their world (emerges between 15 & 24 months) o By about age 3, having acquired self­awareness plus a good deal of knowledge  about their society’s accepted standards, rules, & goals, children become better  able to evaluate their thoughts, plans, desires, & behavior against what is  considered socially appropriate. Only then can they demonstrate the self­ evaluative emotions of pride, guilt & shame.   Brain growth & emotional development o The development of the brain after birth is closely connected w/ changes in  emotional life; this is a bidirectional process: emotional experiences not only are  affected by brain development, but also can have long­lasting effects on the brain  structure.  o 4 major shifts in brain organization correspond roughly to changes in emotional  processing.  1. During the first 3 months, differentiation of basic emotions begins as the  cerebral cortex becomes functional, bringing cognitive perceptions into play.  REM sleep & reflexive behavior, including the spontaneous neonatal smile,  diminish.  2. The second shift occurs around 9­10 months, when the frontal lobes begin to  interact w/ the limbic system, a seat of emotional reactions. At the same time,  limbic structures such as the hippocampus become larger & more adult like;  connections between the frontal cortex & the hypothalamus & limbic system,  which process sensory info, may facilitate the relationship between the  cognitive & emotional spheres. As these connections become denser & more  elaborate, an infant can experience & interpret emotions at the same time.  3. The third shift takes place during the 2  year, when infants develop self­ awareness, self­conscious emotions & a greater capacity for regulating their  emotions & activities. These changes are accompanied by greater physical  mobility & exploratory behavior. 4. The fourth shift occurs around age 3, when hormonal changes in the  autonomic (involuntary) nervous system coincide w/ the emergence of  evaluative emotions. Underlying the development of such emotions as shame  may be a shift away from dominance by the sympathetic system, the part if the autonomic system that prepares the body for action & the maturation of the  parasympathetic system, the part of the autonomic system involved in  excretion & sexual excitation.   Altruistic helping, empathy, & social cognition o Altruistic behavior is an activity intended to help another person w/ no  expectation of reward (seems to come naturally to toddlers) o Empathy is the ability to put oneself in another person’s place & feel what the  nd other person feels (emerges during the 2  year, increases w/ age)  6 month olds engage in social evaluation: valuing someone on the basis of that person’s treatment of others o Mirror neurons fire when a person does something/observes someone else  doing the same thing. By “mirroring” the activities & motivations of others, they  allow a person to see the world from someone else’s POV; linked to imitative  learning as well as to the emergence of self­awareness, of language, & of abstract reasoning. Autism spectrum disorder may represent a breakdown/suppression of  the mirroring system  o Social cognition is the ability to understand that other people have mental states  & to gauge their feelings & intentions o Egocentrism (the inability to see another person’s POV) delays the development of social cognition until the concrete operational stage of middle childhood   Shared intentionality & collaborative activity o Shared intentionality is the joint attention to a mutual goal ­ Temperament:  an early­appearing, biologically­based tendency to respond to  the environment in predictable ways; affects how children approach & react to the outside  world, as well as how they regulate their mental, emotional, & behavioral functioning;  closely linked to emotional responses to the environment given that many responses, such as smiles/cries, are often emotional in nature; relatively consistent & enduring.  Studying temperament patterns: the New York longitudinal study o Researchers followed 133 infants into adulthood & were able to place most of the  children in the study into one of three categories:  1. Easy children (40%): generally happy, rhythmic in biological functioning &  accepting of new experiences.  2. Difficult children (10%): more irritable & harder to please, irregular in  biological rhythms, & more intense in expressing emotions 3. Slow­to­warm­up children (15%): mild but slow to adapt to new people &  situations  Temperament is measured by using short­form questionnaires , or a parental self­report  instrument, the Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ)  Temperament & adjustment: “Goodness of Fit” o Goodness of fit: the appropriateness of environmental demands & constraints to a child’s temperament ­ Developmental Issues in Infancy  Developing trust o Basic trust vs. mistrust: Erikson’s first stage in psychosocial development, in  which infants develop a sense of the reliability of people & objects (infancy – 18  months)  Developing attachments o Attachment, attachment styles are the result of expectations formed b/c of  repeated interactions w/ a caregiver: reciprocal, enduring tie between two people  – especially between infant & caregiver – each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship o Studying Patterns of Attachment:   John Bowlby (1951)  Mary Ainsworth (1967) a student of Bowlby’s went on to study  attachments in African babies through naturalistic observation; she later  devised the Strange Situation, a laboratory technique used to study  infant attachment. (The adult is usually the mother & the infant is 10­24  months old)   Secure attachment (the most common category, into which about 60­ 75% of low­risk North American babies fall) is a pattern in which an  infant is quickly & effectively able to find comfort from a caregiver when  faced w/ a stressful situation.   Avoidant attachment (15­25%) is a pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver & avoids contact on his/her  return  Ambivalent (resistant) attachment (10­15%) is a pattern in which an  infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely  upset during his/her absence, & both seeks & resists contact on his/her  return.   Disorganized­disoriented attachment (10% of low risk infants; but in  much higher proportions in certain at­risk populations (i.e., premature &  those whose mothers abuse alcohol/drugs)) is a pattern in which an infant,  after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory behaviors on his/her return  Stranger anxiety & separation anxiety o Stranger anxiety: wariness of strange people & places, shown by some infants  from age 6­12 months o Separation anxiety: distress shown by someone, typically an infant, when a  familiar caregiver leaves  Emotional communication w/ caregivers: mutual regulation o Mutual regulation: process by which infant & caregiver communicate  emotional states to each other & respond appropriately  o Still­face paradigm: research procedure used to measure mutual regulation in  infants 2­9 months old o Social referencing: understanding an ambiguous situation by seeking out  another person’s perception of it ­ Developmental Issues in Toddlerhood  The emerging sense of self  o Self­concept: sense of self; descriptive & evaluative mental picture of one’s  abilities and traits   Developing autonomy o Autonomy vs. shame & doubt(shift from external control to self­control):  Erikson’s second stage in psychosocial development, in which children achieve a balance between self­determination & control by others  The roots of moral development: socialization & internalization o Socialization: development of habits, skills, values, & motives shared by  responsible, productive members of a society o Internalization: during socialization, process by which children accept societal  standards of conduct as their own o Self­regulation: a person’s independent control of behavior to conform to  understood social expectations o Conscience: internal standards of behavior, which usually control one’s conduct  & produce emotional discomfort when violated o Situational compliance: Grazyna Kochanska’s term for obedience of a parent’s  orders only in the presence of signs if ongoing parental control o Committed compliance: Kochanska’s term for wholehearted obedience of a  parent’s orders w/o reminders/lapses o Receptive cooperation: Kochanska’s term for eager willingness to cooperate  harmoniously w/ a parent in daily interactions, including routines, chores,  hygiene, & play  ­ Gender: How Different Are Baby Boys & Girls? o Gender: significance of being male/female   Gender differences in infants & toddlers Boys Girls Longer, heavier, slightly stronger,  Less reactive to stress and more likely to  physically more vulnerable from  survive infancy conception on  More active Brains @ birth are about 10% larger Boys as young as 17 months tend to play  more aggressively   How parents shape gender differences o Gender­typing: socialization process by which children, at an early age, learn  appropriate gender roles Chapter 9­   Physical Development & Health in Early Childhood   Aspects of Physiological Development: Bodily Growth & Change ­ Children grow rapidly between ages 3 and 6 but less quickly than in infancy & toddlerhood.  At about ae 3, children begin to take on the slender, athletic appearance of childhood.  ­ Boys at age 3 are taller and heavier & has more muscle per pound of body weight than  females. Both girls & boys typically grow 2­3 inches a year during early childhood & gain  about 4­6 lbs. annually.  ­ Cartilage turns to bone faster & bones become harder. These changes, coordinated by the  still maturing brain & nervous system, promote the development of a wide range of motor  skills. The increased capacities of the respiratory & circulatory systems build physical  stamina & along with the developing immune system, keep children healthier.  Sleep Patterns & Problems ­ Young children usually sleep more deeply at night than they will later in life. Most U.S.  children average about 11 hours of sleep at night by age 5 & give up daytime naps. Among  the Gusii of Kenya, the Javanese in Indonesia, & the Zuni in New Mexico, young children  have no regular bedtime & are allowed to stay up until they are sleepy. Among the Canadian Hare­people, 3­year olds take no naps but go right to bed after dinner & sleep as long as  they wish in the morning.  ­ Bedtime may bring a form of separation anxiety and the child may do all they can to avoid  it. More than half of U.S. parents/caregivers report that their preschool child stalls at  bedtime & that it takes 15 minutes or more for the child to fall asleep. About 1/3 of  preschoolers actively resist going to bed & more than 1/3 awake at least once each night.  Transitional objects, such as a light left on or a toy/blanket to sleep with, used repeatedly as  bedtime companions help a child shift from the dependence of infancy to the independence  of later childhood.  Sleep Disturbances & Disorders: ­ About 1 in 10 parents/caregivers say their child has a sleep problem. Sleep disturbances may be caused by accidental activation of the brain’s motor control system, by incomplete  arousal from a deep sleep, or by disordered breathing/restless leg movements. These  disturbances tend to run in the family and are often associated w/ separation anxiety.  ­ A child that experiences sleep/night terror appears to awaken abruptly early in the night  from a deep sleep in a state of agitation. They occur mostly between ages 3 and 13 and  affect boys more often than girls.  Bed Wetting ­ Most children stay dry, day & night by age 3­5 years but enuresis, repeated, involuntary  urination at night by children old enough to be expected to have bladder control, is not  unusual. About 10­15% of 5­year olds, more commonly boys, wet the bed regularly; more  than half outgrow bed­wetting by age 8 w/o special help.  ­ Runs in families; about 75% of bed­wetters have a close relative who also wets the bed &  identical twins are more concordant for the condition than fraternal twins. 


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