Social Psych - Chapter 6 Conformity
Social Psych - Chapter 6 Conformity Psych 3430-02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3430-02 at Tulane University taught by Mrs. O'Brien in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Conformity 2/18/16 Conformity = a change in belief or behavior as the result of real or imagined group pressure Acceptance: changing belief or behavior and believing in the act that you are doing Compliance: changing belief or behavior without believing in the act that you are doing Obedience: changing belief or behavior without believing in the act that you are doing Emotional Contagion Study – done by researchers at Facebook Researchers wanted to see if they manipulated what people saw on their news feed, would it change their feelings and what they did They manipulated people’s newsfeeds to either show more positive posts or more negative posts Results found a small but significant effect towards negativity. People who saw more negative posts were more likely to make their own negative posts Results were questioned because the researchers did not get informed consent, but chose a bunch of news feeds to randomly manipulate Facebook Election Day Study 3 groups of people: people logged onto Facebook and saw a post saying “Today is election day!” with pictures of their friends voting people logged onto Facebook and saw a post saying “Today is election day!” people logged onto Facebook and did not receive any special message (control group) Researchers were looking to see if seeing a particular message would influence people to vote more Results showed that people in the first group (who saw a post saying “Today is election day!” with pictures of their friends voting) were more likely to vote than the control group As a result of the study, 340,000 people voted Results were questioned because the researchers did not get informed consent to gather information Mass Hysteria Terrible car crash in California: at one point, the Toyota car accelerated to over 100 mph and could not be stopped. Unfortunately, everyone in the car ended up dying. After the crash, Toyota saw a significant increase in complaints about vehicles accelerating uncontrollably Went from 9 complaints in 2009, to 651 in 2010 (after the crash) Studied how often words related to the crash (Toyota, acceleration, intended or unintended) showed up in news stories Went from 8 stories with these words before the crash, to 800 stories after the crash Studying results of the aftermath of the car crash showed that humans are very susceptible to conformity and mass hysteria Mimicry: The Chameleon Effect = natural tendency to mimic another person’s body language, tone of speech, and expressions Chartrand and Bargh researched this effect Mimicry Study People were placed in a room with a researcher and asked a series of questions like an interview The researchers either mimicked the participant or did not mimic them After, participants reported that they liked the researcher more if they had been mimicked Sheif’s Autokinetic Study People were placed in a dark room, and saw a white dot They were asked how far the dot was moved, even though it actually had not moved at all Participants first made judgments alone, and each answer had large variation between them They were then asked how far the dot was moved in a group – as they were continued to be asked how far the dot had moved in the group, the answers came closer and closer together until there was a group consensus on how far the dot had moved One year later, participants were asked again how far the dot had moved, and they were still influenced by the group norm This study demonstrates informational influence Asch’s Line Conformity Study Had participants look at a standard line, and then look at 3 lines. The participant was then asked which of the 3 lines was the same length as the standard line Participants were either asked the question in a group, or alone (the control group) People were planted in the group and told to say the wrong answer When people were in the experimental condition, people conformed to the wrong answer (at least 1 time) This study demonstrates normative influence Two Types of Influence Informative influence: conformity that occurs when people accept evidence and suggestions about reality provided by other people Normative influence: conformity that occurs based on a person’s desire to fulfill others expectations, often to gain acceptance Why Do We Conform? Informative influence Desire to be accurate, correct Results in private behavior of conformity True acceptance of what is being said Normative Influence Desire to fulfill the expectations of others Desire to be accepted Results in public behavior of conformity Pressures to Conform to Social Norms Can receive negative consequences of deviating from social norms It is a fundamental human need to belong, which makes it natural for people to conform Rejection and Conformity Study Participants were placed into 3 groups First group – participants watched a comedian who made jokes about other people Second group – participants watched a comedian who made jokes about himself Third group (control group) – participants watched a comedian who didn’t make jokes about people Participants were then shown a cartoon that wasn’t supposed to be funny, but were told that other people found it funny Participants were then asked if they found the cartoon funny Results found that when participants watched a comedian make jokes about other people, they were more likely to conform and say if the cartoon was funny Factors the Influence Conformity Group size As the number of people in the group goes up to 3, the influence of the rest of the group increases Once there are 3 people in the group, the influence of the rest of the group does not increase Social Impact Theory = people who we are close to have more influence on whether people conform or not Cohesion Looks at how close the group is Looks for the feeling of ‘we’ Lone Deviant/Standing Alone = when other people disagree with the group, it decreases conformity Status – more common for people of low status to conform to the actions and beliefs of high status people, than it is for high status people to conform to low status people Age – adolescents are the age group that most often conforms Pluralistic Ignorance = a false impression of what most other people are thinking, feeling or doing Drinking Norms Study – Prentice and Miller Participants were asked questions about drinking on college campuses Results showed that students overestimate how much other people drink, how much they think that the level of college drinking is accepted The students who overestimate these factors are more likely to drink more than they want to because of the influence of college drinking Minority Influence = influence a smaller group of people has on a larger group of people Factors that influence this: Opinion consistency Persistence of the opinion Openmindedness of the group Majority influence vs minority influence Majority influence – operates through normative and informational influence results in public conformity Minority influence – operates through informative influence results in private conformity Milgram’s Classic Obedience Research Researchers tell participants that they are doing a study about education, and that they are the teacher, and someone else (a researcher) was the student. The participant and researcher were placed in separate rooms The participant was given a list of questions that they had to ask the student. They were instructed to administer shocks of increasing intensity when the researcher makes a mistake (the researcher wasn’t actually being shocked) The researcher is instructed to respond as if the shocks are real, saying they can’t go on, and make noises suggesting pain Study was looking to see how far people will go with shocking the researcher Results found that 67% of participants went all the way to maximum shock Participants who wanted to stop were instructed that they must go on. Some participants stopped, and others kept going Compliance = conforming to an expectation or request without really knowing or agreeing with what you are doing Depends on how surprising a person finds the request Line Study People were standing in line to make copies, and different people would go up to them and ask to cut the line. They would either Say “I’m in a rush can I cut the line?” Say “I need to make copies” Give no reason, just cut Results found that Most people were willing to let people cut when they said “I’m in a rush” 60% of people let people cut if they gave no reason People were equally as likely to let people who said “I need to make copies” as when people said “I’m in a rush” More likely to conform and comply when people are similar to the person that is doing the action Even trivial similarities like having the same birthday or living in the same state can make it more likely that someone will conform Norm of reciprocity: treating people as they treat us Coke Study People were asked to buy a raffle ticket with 2 conditions First condition: someone offered them a free coke, and then asked to buy a raffle ticket Second condition: just asked to buy a raffle ticket Results found that when people were offered a free coke, they were more likely to buy a raffle ticket
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