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Chapter 6 Skeletal System

by: Kaitlin Notetaker

Chapter 6 Skeletal System BIOL 243 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Biology > BIOL 243 001 > Chapter 6 Skeletal System
Kaitlin Notetaker
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover all of the skeletal system that will be on our upcoming quiz and next exam.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
Class Notes
Human Anatomy, Human Anatomy and Physiology, bio 243, Biology, Lewis Bowman, bowman, Skeletal System, chapter 6
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Sunday, February 21, y Skeletal System ­ 206 bones in the human body  • the skeleton is divided into two portions: ­ 1. axial skeleton ­ comprised of the skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage • forms longitudinal axis; supports head, neck and trunk; and protects brain,  spinal cord and thoracic organs ­ 2. appendicular skeleton ­ comprised of the bones of the limbs and their girdles • each limb is composed of 3 major segments connected by movable joints ­ characteristics  of the skeleton: • endoskeleton ­ skeletons is inside the body (an exoskeleton is like a cockroach) • bones are a connective tissue  ­ cells found in bone are: • osteoblasts  and osteocytes ­ synthesize bone • osteoclasts  ­ breakdown bone  • extracellular matrix  ground ­     substance ­ consists of various salts: calcium phosphate, calcium  carbonate • hard and resists compression  various ­  fibers: many collagenous fibers to provide tensile strength  ­ classification of bones: • according to structure  long ­  bones ­ arm, forearm, leg and thigh 1 Sunday, February 21, y ­     bones ­ skull, ribs and sternum short ­  bones ­ carpals and tarsals ­ irregular bones ­ vertebrae • long bone epiphysis ­  ­ “head” of long bones • proximal (closer to origin)  and distal (farther from origin) ­ diaphysis  ­ shaft of the long bones • hollow and contains yellow bone marrow ­ fat ­  rticula  cartilage ­ hyaline cartilage on the surface of epiphyses ­ periosteum  ­ connective tissue membrane that surrounds bone • inner layer is rich with osteoblasts ­ endosteum  ­ lining on the inside that separates bone and bone marrow • two types of bone structure ­ 1. compact bone ­ on the surface of all bones • few air spaces, very dense, very strong • organization: supplied with nutrients because of highly organized structure  which allows nerves and blood vessels to run through ­ osteon  (Haversian) system ­ group of parallel hollow tubes of bone matrix • central (Haversian) canal ­ blood vessels and nerves that run through  osteons • nutrients diffuse through cracks (canaliculus) to supply the cells  (osteocytes) with amino acids and oxygen  • lamellae ­ different layers of bone  2 Sunday, February 21, y ­ 2. spongy bone ­ on the inside of bones except in diaphysis  • many air spaces, weaker than compact ­ helps  the bones to resist stress • is the location of red bone marrow  hemophoiesis ­  ­ red blood cell formation • no osteons but osteocyte cells are present in small cavities in bone matrix  called lacunae yellow ­  bone marrow ­ located on inside of diaphysis • fat (not really bone) ­ Bone Development • 1. endochondral ossification ­ the hyaline cartilage of the embryonic skeleton is  constructed into bone  ­ hyaline  cartilage will degenerate (die) and the membrane (perichondrium) is  converted into a periosteum  • a) a bony collar forms around the diaphysis (shaft) on the outside of the  hyaline cartilage model, encasing it • b) cartilage inside diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities which will form  spongy bone  • occurs outside to inside ­ formation  for nearly all bones in the body ­ except skull and facial bones • 2. intramembraneous ossification  ­ starts with a matrix of fibers (mostly collagenous); osteoblasts invade matrix of  fibers and make spongy bone • then remodeled and compact bone forms 3 Sunday, February 21, y • occurs from inside to outside  • increase in the length of long bones (growth) ­ before  birth, diaphyses are ossified (converted to bone)  ­ after birth, epiphyses are ossified  • leave a plate of hyaline cartilage between diaphysis and epiphysis ­ epiphyseal plate “growth plate” ­ cells in the growth zone are triggered by growth hormones to divide rapidly  to lengthen long bone ­ the  surrounding cartilage will calcify then ossify to produce new bone and  growth • complications with epiphyseal plate ­  ituitar  giant ­ continued release of growth hormone and growth of  epiphyseal plate  pituitary ­     dwarf ­ stopped release of growth hormone too early and long  bones are shorter than normal  • remodeling ­ bones are continually being broken down and rebuilt ­  ccurs   by remodeling packets that contain osteoclasts (break down bone) and  osteoblasts (synthesize bone)  • osteoclasts ­ erode bone by creating an acidic environment which dissolves  calcium and establishes conditions where bone will break down  • bone deposition ­ organic layer (glycoproteins, collagen, elastic fibers) are laid  down first • mineralization ­ various calcium precipitates are laid down  ­ processes  active in controlling remodeling • hormonal mechanisms ­ keeps calcium levels in blood maintained  4 Sunday, February 21, y ­ i calcium levels decrease, parathyroid hormone is released by parathyroid  gland that stimulates the osteoclasts to enhance breakdown of bone in order to release calcium into the blood  ­ i calcium levels increase, calcitonin is released by the thyroid to inhibit  osteoclasts  • response to stress  ­ stress has a signaling pathway for bone to be deposited to strengthen ­ Bone Complications • rickets ­ vitamin D deficiency  ­ D is necessary for the consumption of calcium and phosphorous which forms and strengthens bones  • osteoporosis ­ balance of breakdown and synthesizing (not synthesizing, just  breakdown) ­ bones  become brittle and beak easily, loss of bone mass ­ most  common in post­menopausal females • fractures  ­ types :  • simple ­ bones are broken into two pieces (in half)  • compound ­ (one of more) of bones are protruding through the skin • comminuted ­ splintering (broken into lots of pieces) • depressed ­ bones are pushed inward (in skull) ­ healing  ­ occurs in stages  • 1. hematoma (blood clot) is formed  • 2. fibroblast and chondroblasts invade and generate a fibrocartilaginous callus  5 Sunday, February 21, y • 3. osteoblasts invade to form a bony callus (similar to spongy bone)  • 4. bone remodeling takes place and compact bone is deposited on outside 6


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