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ANT 347 Week 4 of Notes

by: Nia Gibson

ANT 347 Week 4 of Notes ANT 349

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Archaeology at the Movies
C. DeCorse
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Gibson on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 349 at Syracuse University taught by C. DeCorse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
ANT 349 Notes February 24, 2016 Archaic Humans  (200­400,000 BP) Transitional forms: • Homo Erectus features:heavy eyebrow ridges, thick bone, skull relatively flat • Large cranial capacity Anatomically modern humans (200,000 BP) • Large brain/high cranial vault • chin • reduction in teeth • less robust post­cranial skeleton Evolution of Homo sapiens to Homo erectus How did this occur? • multi regional Hypothesis • Replacement Model Out of Africa: Homo erectus finds Fossil Evidence: • oldest Homo sapiens in place of origin • CONTINUITY or DISCONTINUITY in fossil records of other regions. Mitochondrial DNA mutation • measures genetic relatedness, but also the time depth represented Heterogeneity in African genetic material suggests longer time for mutations to occur Conclusions • Consensus view favors the replacement model. • Some researchers have proposed model that integrates both models Archaic Homo sapiens Who do you think of when you think of a “cave man”  The Quintessential Caveman • Neanderthal domestic scene 1873 Harper’s Weekly neanderthal: A warm, caring brute ‘Neanderthal Man’ • First extinct, Archaic Human fossil identified (1856) • Opened debate over human origins and antiquity Other Fossil hominid not found until the turn of the century Neanderthals Have been considered: • A transitional form • A sub­species of Homo sapiens • Separate species Homo erectus Homo sapiens neanderthalensis  Homo sapiens  Transitional Form Neanderthals and humans • Co­existence w/homo sapiens • Wide distribution Genetic Differences: Skeletal Data and genetic information: Neanderthals not related to humans  Neanderthals and human separate species? What happened to Neanderthal? • Disappear from fossil record about 25,000 years ago • Inability to adapt • out­competed by Homo sapiens • Interbred • Hunted to extinction Neanderthal: A Complex Social History Debate over classification and human origins How scientific interpretation translated into popular views and ideas First Recognized Discovery • Homo sapiens neanderthals • Leander Valley, Germany, 1856 • Brain very large, with homo erectus features Methodological Challenges • Few Fossils • Chronology poor • Contexts uncertain How to analyze? What measurements to take? Contemporary Interpretations • Modern, pathologically deformed man • Russian Cossack • Idiot Dutchmans No basis for comparison  An Archaic Human Ancestor Herman Schaffhausen, German biologist announced Neander Valley find Or an Impossible Ancestor? Rudolf Virchow Opposed evolution Declared normal­ Neanderthal skeletons pathological Faulty reconstructions The “original” neanderthal Missed Messages: 1888 Interpretation: Suggested Neanderthals walked with bent knees Marcellin Boule 1908 La Chapelle­aux­Saints, France find Reconstruction of neanderthal structure and posture Neanderthal with modern human (Australian) Neanderthal: Glowering brute Neanderthal Acceptance New finds: Neanderthal remains normal examples of fossil human species Same too kit was modern humans Neanderthal Man by Carleton Coon He would pass unnoticed on a New York subway A modern Neanderthal Maxwell Museum, University of New Mexico 1990 Cave Men and Women in film and fiction Neanderthal Man:  Primitive, Aggressive  1953 Movie Quest for Fire 1982 Ron Perlman, Rae Dong Chong Ice Age: 80,000 BC Group of (supposedly Cro­Magnon) search fro fire Pleistocene Animals: Mammoths, saber tooth tigers


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