Anatomy 2 Respiratory System Week One
Anatomy 2 Respiratory System Week One BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
The Rest of the Respiratory System: 1. Thoracic Cavity Pressures A. Intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) a. pressure in the alveoli b. decrease during inspiration, increase during expiration c. Always equalize with atmospheric pressure B. Intraplueral pressure (Pip) a. pressure in plueral cavity b. always negative relative to intrapulmonary pressure c. more negative as thoracic cavity volume increases during inspiration C. Transpulmonary Pressure a. Calculate it by: Ppul-Pip b. determines size of lungs at any given time 2. Pulmonary Ventilation and its relationship to Boyles Law A. Boyle Law: P1V1=P2V2 B. If volume decreases, pressure increases C. If volume increases, pressure decreases 3. Mechanics of Breathing A. Inspiration: a. Inspiratory muscles (external intercostals and diaphragm) contract 1. Diaphragm down 2. Rib cage up and out b. thoracic cavity volume increases 1. intraplueral pressure drops c. Lungs are stretched 1. Intrapulmonary Volume Rises d. Intrapulmonary pressure drops e. Air ﬂow to lungs: down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure= atmospheric pressure B. Expiration: a. Inspiratory muscles (external intercostals and diaphragm) relax 1. diaphragm up 2. rib cage down and in b. Thoracic cavity volume decreases 1. intrapleural pressure rises c. Elastic lungs recoil passively 1. intrapulmonary volume drops d. Intrapulmonary pressure rises e. Air ﬂow to lungs: down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure= atmospheric pressure f. Forced Expiration= contraction of abs and internal intercostals push air out 4. Pnuemothorax= presence of air in pleural cavity; abnormal amount of air in the pleural space that causes an uncoupling of the lung from the chest wall A. disease 5. Respiratory Volumes A. Tidal Volume= volume of air in and out of lungs during normal quiet breathing B. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)= volume of air that can be inspired forcibly beyond tidal volume C. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)= volume of air that can be expired forcibly beyond tidal volume D. Residual Volume (RV)= volume left in lungs after forced expiration E. Be able to ﬁll out this chart 6. Respiratory Capacities= combinations of respiratory volumes A. Inspired capacity (IC)= total volume of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration a. TV+IRV= combination of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume B. Functional residual capacity (FRC)= volume of air left in lung after normal expiration a. ERV+RV= combination of expiratory reserve volume and residual volume C. Vital Capacity(VC)= total exchange of exchangeable air a. IC+ERV= combination of inspiratory capacity and expiatory reserve volume D. Total lung capacity (TLC)= total volume of air the lungs can hold a. IC+FRC= combination of inspiratory capacity and functional residual capacity b. Sum of all lung volumes E. Minute Ventilation= total volume of air that ﬂows in and out of respiratory system per minute a. 6 L/min during quiet breathing 7. Anatomical Dead Space= volume of air in conducting zone A. some inspired air remains in conducting zone and does't make it to alveoli for gas exchange B. alveolar ventilation rate= better measure of eﬀective ventilation than minute ventilation b/c accounts for the dead space a. Respiration rate* (TV-dead space) b. total amount of fresh air that ﬂows in and out of the the respiratory system in 1 min 8. Divisions of Respiratory System A. Respiratory zone= actual of gas exchange; bronchioles, alveoli, alveolar ducts B. Conducting zone= all respiratory passageways leading to and including terminal bronchioles 9. Three types of dead space: A. Anatomical Dead Space= does not contribute to gas exchange a. consists of air that remains in passageways b. 150 ml B. Alveolar dead space= space occupied by nonfunctional alveoli a. can be due to collapse or obstruction C. Total Dead Space= sum of anatomical and alveolar space 10. Gas Exchange A. occurs between lungs and blood as well as blood and tissues B. External respiration= diﬀusion of gases between blood and lungs C. Internal Respiration= diﬀusion of gases between blood and tissues D. Both processes are subjected to: basic properties of gases and composition of alveolar gas 11. Basic Properties of Gases A. Dalton's law of partial pressures a. total pressure exerted by mixture of gases is equal to sum of pressures exerted by each gas b. Partial Pressure 1. pressure exerted by gas in mixture 2. directly proportional to its percentage in mixture B. Total atmospheric pressure equals 760 mmHg a. Nitrogen makes up 78.6%, therefore partial pressure of nitrogen is: 1. 0.786 x 760 mmHg= 597 mmHg due to N2 b. Oxygen makes up 20.9% of air, so partial pressure is: 1. 0.209 x 760 mmHg= 159 mmHg c. REMBER THESE CALCULATIONS!!!! C. Partial Pressure Gradient a. gas pulmonary and systemic capillaries is via passive diﬀusion of O2 and CO2 due to PPG 1. partial pressure= individual pressure exerted by a particular gas within a mixture of gases (PO2 and PCO2) 2. PPG- occurs when the PP of a gas diﬀers across a membrane 3. A GAS WILL ALWAYS DIFFUSE FROM A HIGHER PP TO A LOWER PP!!! D. At high altitudes, partial pressure declines, but at lower altitudes (under water), partial pressures increase signiﬁcantly E. Henry's Law a. For gas mixtures in contact liquids: 1. Each gas will dissolve in the liquid proportion to its partial pressure 2. At equilibrium, partial pressures in the two phases will be equal 3. Amount of each gas that will dissolve depends on: A. Solubility= CO2 is 20x soluble in water than O2, and little N2 will dissolve B. Temperature= as temp of liquid rises, solubility decreases b. Example of Henry's Law: hyperbaric chambers F. External Respiration (pulmonary gas exchange) a. involves the exchange of O2 and CO2 across respiratory membranes b. Exchange is inﬂuenced by: 1. partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities A. steep partial pressure gradient for O2 exists between blood and lungs a. MEMORIZE THESE BELOW: b. Venous blood partial pressure= 40 mmHg c. Alveolar partial pressure= 104 mmHg 1. drives oxygen ﬂow into blood 2. equilibrium is reached across respiratory membrane 3. ensures adequate oxygenation even if blood ﬂow increases 3x B. Partial Pressure gradient for CO2 is less steep: a. venous blood partial pressure= 45 mmHg b. alveolar partial pressure= 40mmHg C. Though gradient is not as steep, Co2, still diﬀuses in equal amounts with oxygen a. reason is that CO2 is 20x more soluble in plasma and alveolar ﬂuid than oxygen 2. thickness and surface area of respiratory membrane 3. Ventilation-perfusion coupling= matching of alveolar ventilation with pulmonary blood perfusion G. Dalton's Law a. air pressure is the sum of the partial pressure of all gases present b. partial pressure= % of gas in mixture x total air pressure c. as long as oxygen is more concentrated( higher PP) outside and CO2 is more concentrated (higher PP) inside, the gases will diﬀuse in the directions shown in the diagram 1. Oxygen goes into blood and carbon dioxide goes into the alveolus H.
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