AN 1103 Chapter 7 Notes
AN 1103 Chapter 7 Notes AN 1103
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
Reviews for AN 1103 Chapter 7 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/21/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 7 Notes Hominid Evolution Hominid Evolution o Two traits that define a hominid: Bipedalism – walking on two feet – often shown by a forward position of the foramen magnum. Loss of the CP3 complex (honing complex) o Increase in brain size o Early hominids were found in Africa. o Early tool uses – unmodified stones, grass, wood, bone, and antlers used by hominids o Humans originated around 200,000 years ago o Fossil record is spotty – some evidence is missing o Mosaic Revolution – evolution of the body that only takes place in one body part at a time Early Hominids o Sahelanthropus tchadensis *** Discovered in chad 6-7 million years ago Ape like features: Small brain Primitive teeth U-shaped dental arcade Skull shape Hominid like: Flat face Enormous brow ridges Forward position of the foramen magnum (consistent with bipedalism) Cranial capacity – 320-350 cm^3 o Orrorin Tugenesis – do not need to know o Ardipithecus ramidus Found in Ethiopia 4.4-5.8 million years ago Ape Like features: Size and anatomy Small molars Thin enamel Hominid features: No sectorial premolar Forward position of the foramen magnum – walked upright Australopithecines (“Southern Ape”) o Characteristics: Bipedal Small brained Having large teeth with thick enamel o 4.2-1.2 million years ago o Average cranial capacity – 500 cm^3 o Short infancy o Two types Gracile – delicate Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Robust Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus boisei o Australopithecus anamensis 4.2-3.8 million years ago Kenya Ape-like features: U-shaped dentition Arm bones adapted to tree life Hominid like features: Bipedalism Large molars Small canines Thick enamel o Australopithecus afarensis *** “Lucy” 3.5 million years ago 3.5 ft. tall V-shaped dental arcade Medium sized canines Sexual dimorphism between 50% and 88% Ape-like skull Fully bipedal Cranial capacity: 404 cm^3 Slept in trees (nests) o Australopithecus platyops 3.5 million years agokenya Flat face Small teeth Small ear holes o Australopithecus africanus *** South Africa 3-2.2 million years ago Pronounced sexual dimorphism seen in canines and body size Males – 4.6 ft tall and 90 lbs Females 3.9 ft tall and 60 mlbs Large molars and lower jaw Cranial Capacity: 442 cm^3 Fully bipedal o Australopithecus garhi 2.5 million years ago East Africa Sagittal crest Cranial Capacity: 450 cm^3 o Australopithecus aethiopicus “black skull” due to magnesium during fossilization WT 17000 Ethiopia 2.5 million years ago Compound crest Large zygomatic arches Large molars Broad, projecting face Large palate Cranial Capacity: 410 cm^3 o Australopithecus Robustus Tanzania and Kenya 2.3-1.2 million years ago Marked sexual dimorphism Massive chewing apparatus and a sagittal crest Ate seeds, nuts, and meat Cranial Capacity: 530 cm^3 o Australopithecus boisei Kenya and Ethiopia 2.3-1.2 million years ago Large body, molars, chewing apparatus, and sagittal crest Cranial capacity: 490cm^3 o Afarensis -> africanus -> homo The Genus Homo o Characteristics: Large cranial capacity Decrease in chewing apparatus – absence of sagittal crest and flaring zygomatic arches Smaller face, jaw, and teeth Parabolic arch o KNMER – 1470: fossil found in Kenya. Dated about 1.9 million years ago Scientists are still not sure what to categorize the fossil o Cranial Capacity: 7500 cm^3 o Homo habilis: “handy man” Tanzania and Kenya 2.5-1.44 million years ago Small chewing complex Larger brain Oldowan tools – not proven to belong to habilis Cranial capacity: 631 cm^3 Smaller brow ridges and flatter face o Homo erectus 1.8-.2 million years ago Africa, Asia, and Europe First to leave Africa Characteristics: Used fire Hunters and gatherers Temporary camps and shelters Increase in brain size Reduction in size of premolars and molars Receding forehead Mild ridge in middle of skull Cranial Capacity: 900 cm^3 Acheulian stone tools o Archaic Homo sapiens Africa, Asia, and Europe 350,000-33,000 years ago Premolars and molars smaller than erectus Robust brow ridges, a large face, a thick cranial vault, an occipital torus o Homo neanderthalensis Europe, Israel, Iraq, and Gibraltar 225,000-28,000 years ago Thick bones and a large nose Faces projected with sloping foreheads First to ritually bury dead Mousterian tools Possibility of cannibalism o Homo floresiensis “hobbits” Indonesia 74,000-16,000 years ago Cranial capacity and posterior cranium resemble the australopithecines Skulls resemble homo erectus Small brains Evidence of tools, hunting, and possible cooking and fire o Homo sapiens sapiens 200,000 years ago Africa, Asia, and Europe first; then Australia and Americas Anatomically modern humans: large gracile skull with small or absent brow ridges, flat nose, mid-face and a round occiput, small jaws and teeth, chin is present, large mastoid process, straight limb bones, pelvis and rib cage are narrow Culture: Musical instruments Sculpture Jewelry Use of ochre Paintings Needles Harpoons Spear throwers Composite tools Blade tools Regularly buried dead Theories of Homo sapien sapien evolution o 1 – modern humans originated in Africa and then moved out to Europe and Asia o 2 nd– Homo sapiens independently evolved from Homo sapiens sapiens o 3 – Homo sapiens mated with Homo sapiens sapiens Punctuated equilibrium o Darwin – gradual evolution
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'