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AN 1103 Chapter 7 Notes

by: Falyn Ruby

AN 1103 Chapter 7 Notes AN 1103

Falyn Ruby
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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our next exam. Most important species are starred.
Introduction to Anthropology
Professor Jean Marcus
Class Notes
Anthropology, intro to anthropology, Homonid, evolution, Hominid Evolution, Jean Marcus
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 7 Notes Hominid Evolution  Hominid Evolution o Two traits that define a hominid:  Bipedalism – walking on two feet – often shown by a forward position of the foramen magnum.  Loss of the CP3 complex (honing complex) o Increase in brain size o Early hominids were found in Africa. o Early tool uses – unmodified stones, grass, wood, bone, and antlers used by hominids o Humans originated around 200,000 years ago o Fossil record is spotty – some evidence is missing o Mosaic Revolution – evolution of the body that only takes place in one body part at a time  Early Hominids o Sahelanthropus tchadensis ***  Discovered in chad  6-7 million years ago  Ape like features:  Small brain  Primitive teeth  U-shaped dental arcade  Skull shape  Hominid like:  Flat face  Enormous brow ridges  Forward position of the foramen magnum (consistent with bipedalism)  Cranial capacity – 320-350 cm^3 o Orrorin Tugenesis – do not need to know o Ardipithecus ramidus  Found in Ethiopia  4.4-5.8 million years ago  Ape Like features:  Size and anatomy  Small molars  Thin enamel  Hominid features:  No sectorial premolar  Forward position of the foramen magnum – walked upright  Australopithecines (“Southern Ape”) o Characteristics:  Bipedal  Small brained  Having large teeth with thick enamel o 4.2-1.2 million years ago o Average cranial capacity – 500 cm^3 o Short infancy o Two types  Gracile – delicate  Australopithecus afarensis  Australopithecus africanus  Robust  Australopithecus robustus  Australopithecus boisei o Australopithecus anamensis  4.2-3.8 million years ago  Kenya  Ape-like features:  U-shaped dentition  Arm bones adapted to tree life  Hominid like features:  Bipedalism  Large molars  Small canines  Thick enamel o Australopithecus afarensis ***  “Lucy”  3.5 million years ago  3.5 ft. tall  V-shaped dental arcade  Medium sized canines  Sexual dimorphism between 50% and 88%  Ape-like skull  Fully bipedal  Cranial capacity: 404 cm^3  Slept in trees (nests) o Australopithecus platyops  3.5 million years agokenya  Flat face  Small teeth  Small ear holes o Australopithecus africanus ***  South Africa  3-2.2 million years ago  Pronounced sexual dimorphism seen in canines and body size  Males – 4.6 ft tall and 90 lbs  Females 3.9 ft tall and 60 mlbs  Large molars and lower jaw  Cranial Capacity: 442 cm^3  Fully bipedal o Australopithecus garhi  2.5 million years ago  East Africa  Sagittal crest  Cranial Capacity: 450 cm^3 o Australopithecus aethiopicus  “black skull” due to magnesium during fossilization  WT 17000  Ethiopia  2.5 million years ago  Compound crest  Large zygomatic arches  Large molars  Broad, projecting face  Large palate  Cranial Capacity: 410 cm^3 o Australopithecus Robustus  Tanzania and Kenya  2.3-1.2 million years ago  Marked sexual dimorphism  Massive chewing apparatus and a sagittal crest  Ate seeds, nuts, and meat  Cranial Capacity: 530 cm^3 o Australopithecus boisei  Kenya and Ethiopia  2.3-1.2 million years ago  Large body, molars, chewing apparatus, and sagittal crest  Cranial capacity: 490cm^3 o Afarensis -> africanus -> homo  The Genus Homo o Characteristics:  Large cranial capacity  Decrease in chewing apparatus – absence of sagittal crest and flaring zygomatic arches  Smaller face, jaw, and teeth  Parabolic arch o KNMER – 1470: fossil found in Kenya. Dated about 1.9 million years ago  Scientists are still not sure what to categorize the fossil o Cranial Capacity: 7500 cm^3 o Homo habilis:  “handy man”  Tanzania and Kenya  2.5-1.44 million years ago  Small chewing complex  Larger brain  Oldowan tools – not proven to belong to habilis  Cranial capacity: 631 cm^3  Smaller brow ridges and flatter face o Homo erectus  1.8-.2 million years ago  Africa, Asia, and Europe  First to leave Africa  Characteristics:  Used fire  Hunters and gatherers  Temporary camps and shelters  Increase in brain size  Reduction in size of premolars and molars  Receding forehead  Mild ridge in middle of skull  Cranial Capacity: 900 cm^3  Acheulian stone tools o Archaic Homo sapiens  Africa, Asia, and Europe  350,000-33,000 years ago  Premolars and molars smaller than erectus  Robust brow ridges, a large face, a thick cranial vault, an occipital torus o Homo neanderthalensis  Europe, Israel, Iraq, and Gibraltar  225,000-28,000 years ago  Thick bones and a large nose  Faces projected with sloping foreheads  First to ritually bury dead  Mousterian tools  Possibility of cannibalism o Homo floresiensis  “hobbits”  Indonesia  74,000-16,000 years ago  Cranial capacity and posterior cranium resemble the australopithecines  Skulls resemble homo erectus  Small brains  Evidence of tools, hunting, and possible cooking and fire o Homo sapiens sapiens  200,000 years ago  Africa, Asia, and Europe first; then Australia and Americas  Anatomically modern humans: large gracile skull with small or absent brow ridges, flat nose, mid-face and a round occiput, small jaws and teeth, chin is present, large mastoid process, straight limb bones, pelvis and rib cage are narrow  Culture:  Musical instruments  Sculpture  Jewelry  Use of ochre  Paintings  Needles  Harpoons  Spear throwers  Composite tools  Blade tools  Regularly buried dead  Theories of Homo sapien sapien evolution o 1 – modern humans originated in Africa and then moved out to Europe and Asia o 2 nd– Homo sapiens independently evolved from Homo sapiens sapiens o 3 – Homo sapiens mated with Homo sapiens sapiens  Punctuated equilibrium o Darwin – gradual evolution


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