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Date Created: 02/21/16
Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 2 12916 0 Anatomy V physiology form and function 0 Double ureters two ureters for each kidney draining them when you should only have one 0 Kidneys brain lungs and heart are paired structures 0 Cranial cavity vertebral cavity thoracic cavity abdomino pelvic cavity 0 X ray the more white the more dense it is 0 Black the less dense 0 Why is the diaphragm at an oblique angle Liver pushes up on diaphragm O Pleural effusion excess uid in the pleural cavity I Effusion escape of uid into a cavity I Hydrothorax 0 Fluidwater I Hemothorax 0 Fluidblood I Pyothorax 0 Fluidpuss 0 Nonmembranous organelles microvilli centriole cytoskeleton proteasomes ribosomes I The outer cell membrane that s a lipid bilayer 0 Has many different things embedded within it that give the cell its properties how it responds to and functions in certain environments I If it has voltage gated channels electrically excitable I If it has receptors for a certain hormone activated when that hormone is released I Mysteries of the cell 0 Do lipid rafts still exist Still debated 0 Does a cell know its size Cell sizer proteins Pom l 0 How does a cell position its proteins mRNA zip codes 0 How do hungry cells start eating themselves Cell forms autophagosome comes from membrane material from many sources 0 Does a genes location in the nucleus matter Yes I Ribosomes and Disease Ribosomopathies O Ribosomopathy mutation that leads to complete loss embryo will not be viable 0 Fixed ribosomes in membrane of rough ER 0 Free ribosomes oating in the cytoplasm O Ribosomes generate all cellular proteins needed for cell growth translate mRNA into protein D defects in single ribosomal proteins or ribosome assembly factors can affect specific cell types and cause human diseases I Diamond Blackfan Anemia bone marrow failure RBC s I Congenital asplenia prone to infections I Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial abnormalities Cell environment can cause ribosome to prefer translating specific mRNA types Shared characteristics of these diseases include I Small stature I Microcephaly I Hematological defects I Predisposition to cancer Endoplasmic reticulum Associated Destruction ERAD O O 0 Main functions I Monitors folding of membrane and secretory proteins directs misfolded proteins to proteasome I Works to control the turnover of specific proteins to achieve a certain physiological state not too much or too little I Regulated degradation process I In some cells up to 13rd of newly made proteins may be degraded due to problems with synthesis or folding I Misfolded proteins cause ER stress through 0 Ischemia lack of oxygen 0 Glucose nutrient deprivation 0 Excess lipid 0 Viral infections 0 Human disorders at least 67 human diseases have been connected to the ERAD pathway 0 Cystic fibrosis lethal condition 0 Neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer s Huntington s Parkinson s 0 Metabolic diseases diabetes Mitochondria have their own DNA maternal DNA distinct from nuclear DNA non mendelian inheritance Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes RBC s don t have mitochondria because they don t need to use the oxygen they need to carry it other cells have multiple mitochondria Within a cell all mitochondria can have identical mtDNA homoplasmy or contain 2 or more mitochondrial genomes heteroplasmy Mitochondrial DNA has a high mutation rate most mutations neutral many of these diseases are fatal Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission quotI Ill i i 0 Mitochondrial Bottleneckunequal partitioning of mtDNA among oocytes O Replication of mtDNA in oocyte starts after fertilization around implantationoocyte mitochondria partitioned into cells of blastocyst inner cell mass contribute to the embryo itself 0 Mitochondrial diseases 0 300 pathogenic mtDNA mutations are known all inherited from mother 0 Commonly defined by lack of cellular energy from oxidative phosphorylation defects 0 Can affect 1 structure or multiple systems 0 Adult disorders typically consist of IMyopathy muscle disease ICNS involvement ataXia lack of muscle coordination and seizures 0 Pediatric patients often have I Delays in motor development I Hypotonia low muscle tone and reduced muscle strength I Lactic acidosis low pH in body tissues and blood accompanied by build up of lactate I Signs of cardiorespiratory failure no supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity 0 Mitochondrial manipulation in Assisted Reproductive Technology ART 0 Women with mitochondrial diseases cause from defect in mtDNA donor egg from healthy non effected women remove nucleus I Add nucleus of egg of women with mitochondrial diseasebaby has mom and dads nuclear DNA but donor moms mitochondrial DNA Method one Embryo repair Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 lParEnt S39 Embryo ir g U nhealtw Parents nwolleus g 7 mutcchcndria VB39VTV DWE39 3 iiiiii Paren ls39 nucleus 2 Q P 77711 I 3 now m donor ember a a jg Hummus T a n removed and Parents mutuluus destrcwd p I Donor embryo r r quot s a a 39 39 Healthy 39 1 f mntoehondria 1 Q 1 1 y I I iiiiiiiiiiir iiquot J x a ag s st af x a a a Donors nucleus Emma lirlllFEA Method two Egg rapair Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Mother39s Eglgl 39 E g U nhaalthy Motheris nucleus s Mitochondria mmmm l In iii Mother 3 H39ILJCHELJE i now nn donor 3 a a r r n a removed and MD EhEF S I39IUCIELIS J destroyed DEWquot Egg 39 r 7 1 Healmr t 5 39 mntoehondria I l ifffifiiiiiiii 3 l r a l a t Donor s nucleus Emma liilFEA 0 Mitochondrial Donation Lecture 3 2 1 16 I Teratomamonstrous tumor 0 A kind of tumor with tissue or organ components resembling normal derivatives of all three germ layers ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm 0 Can contain hair teeth bone and rarely complex organs eyeball hands feet limbs O A teratoma is encapsulated so it is usually benign 0 50 100 trillion cells in the body with 200 different cell types 0 Erythrocyte red blood cell 0 Podocyte footed cell looks like a foot found in nephrons O Oligodendrocyte cell with many branches 0 Osteocyte bone cell resorbing bone so it s an osteoclast 0 Membrane Junctions 0 Most cell types are found in groups in clusters that function together to bring about desired outcome I OrganellesIlcelltissueorganorgan system I Tissue group of cells with similar function I Organ collection of tissues I Organ system group of organs O The body has to anchor the cells to one another 0 A number of structures within the plasma membrane linking cell to cell or cell to membrane id a I Pi 39 Jr ilw uli i mm r EI J E H f39 I is H Al Y H l f t quot5 HtsTIE I l gm r at u i quotThi l L 39 quot1 i i h gunman Pr Eli rE 1 73 m gmg swat minEmilia j 39 w jg rtirl 39 m lhiJ M a rrIIIrrrIiI1r libII Eur19mm Lei rwng Hal ap litIn lilgrln L39 39l39ll39m 39lltil39ll39ll jlxll39l li l39lliEm larlij 39ll l 39 l jl39l fi39iizl hl li l IE IFEEWHS in rlllzirn ill2w t ti 1154mm Trust FiHHEIJI iEUEIJEIH iL39 lillJZZI III lim fmlm mulnulw IIl f ITI HIlIFEHI 1 iermit irw u irrn arr mnm mg waftF n l39l39clr iriliart iuilr mum Ia ICIT libLuau tillallljunizlltinn 0 Tight Junctions 0 GI disease Crohns Cystic Fibrosis CF 0 Increased gut permeability ulcers in ammation damage from exogenous pancreatic enzymes CF make gut leaky symptom of disease 0 Intestinal integrity gets compromisedtight junctions are compromised paracellular space becomes larger impact passage of minerals that normally go through these junctions in both directions 0 Minerals are transported through these junctions in both directions absorption in to the body and secretion into the lumen of the gut to be lost from the body I If lose too much Ca compromise bone mass 0 Ventral Body CaVity Membranes O serosa lines intern O serosa covers the O Serous uid separates the serosae serous pertaining to serum 0 Adult male have a few mLs of serous uid pleural uid surrounding the lungs O 15 50 mL surrounding the heart Outer ballaan wall camparahle ta parietal semaa Air comparable to seruua cavity W Inner ballnnn wall camparabla tn visceral aernsa Heart 39 I Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium lhl FEJWE Miamibrna quotflhnapart Fmaaaaea I I H iTi IiiI iIEiJ39 I i H Lilgeilj Warn i tlail l l d n l39liixi MEEFiiiirmdi i ii39 iill bi iii mlililzlla 39ididimd ldb amla Tuaie alm gi39 Eh l h 39ll39llil UH39IEIJ IIair39i Ell EtnaEquot Eil i39l l39 l39iEi39 1 IEIH39I IJEIQH ENEugh EpE IEI HE pharphullplal IBMElfquot IngramExitquotam amiaalshiindln 39IhraIeaahaahannai aha1mg prawn nr Hum Mimid il39iiuil Ehi g i marElna made Elanu Emu is nr lniiranm aarl prism Hlllialiiltlain ragm an Ehmghihallpal ii Hamma hila r Facilitated iffus n tj aha e rum argpmtain 1 39 Facilitated di uaium Transspuri of mouse amino acids and ins 0 Molecule binds to protein changes its conformation and moves the molecule into the cytosol O Glucose can be moves into cells by this or insulin 0 Diffusion of Water Across Membrane Osmosis O Unassisted diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane 0 Water diffuses from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated solution ie from fewer solutesampmore water to more solutesampless water 0 The higher the solute concentration the lower the water concentration 0 Whenever a solute gradient eXists a concentration gradient for water also eXists solute takes up space water would occupy 0 Water ows across a membrane towards the solution containing the higher solute Effect f Membrne Permeability 0 The membrane is selectively permeable large pink structures able to move but water cant 0 Water moves from more concentrated to lower one sides volume would increase 0 If you want to figure out the gradient you could add pressure and asses the osmotic pressure of the gradient tonicity 0 Diffusion through the plasma membrane amsis Ella ifFuin ITIEIE llE Elm F ymm i ueinn 1Fme specific channu pm ln alumnimm mthmuh le HIM minister 0 The kidney contains a large number of aquaporins because you need them to maintain pH and water balance in the kidney 0 Passive transport 0 Osmosis simple diffusion O Aguaporins facilitated diffusion 0 Carrier mediated diffusion example of ion moving down gradient 0 Filtration hydrostatic pressure moves substances across membrane 0 All DO NOT require energy 0 Membrane Potential O sodium inpotassium out no energy 0 move cations using energy 0 sodium potassium ATPase ENERGY 0 Active transport requires ATP 0 Moving against both an electrical gradient and a chemical gradient 0 Vesicular Transport I Phagocytosis psuedopods false feet engulf solids and bring them into the cell s interior 0 Practiced by specialized cells macrophages 0 NOT SPECIFIC 0 Using vesicles the cells can phagocytize things I Receptor mediated endocytosis receptors internalized and often recycled back to membrane greater SPECIFICITY in uptake Clathrin coated pits provide a major role in formation of coated vesicles for and 0 Vesicle buds off into the cytoplasm clathrin is released and recycles back to the membrane D 0 Functions I 1 Add components to the membrane I 2 Recycle membrane receptors I 3 Secrete substances into ECF I Pinocytosis uid phase endocytosis 0 The plasma membrane enfolds bringing extracellular uid and solutes into the interior of the cell Practiced by most cells Lecture 4 2216 0 Atransferrinemia 0 Clinical correlate l 0 Receptor mediated endocytosis 0 Cellular Organelles 0 Whole Body Iron Homeostasisl 0 Iron in the body is a CLOSED SYSTEM no regulatory way to get rid of excess Fe 0 Different cell types use slightly different proteins to move Fe in through and out of the cell 0 Whole body Fe homeostasis is controlled by several hormones I Erythropoietin Kidney EPO I Erythroferrone Bone 0 Old senescent RBC s lost their exibility get trapped in the spleen are catabolized and the Fe is reutilized about 20 mg of iron released per day Key cells that need to regulate Iron 0 Macrophage chew up old RBCs O Enterocyte as iron is absorbed into small intestine O Hepatocyte cells that store excess iron and make the hormone hepcidin O Erythroid Precursors cells that become RBC s in bone The body utilizes enterocytes to most effectively maintain Fe balance because iron is absorbed in the small intestine and iron cant be gotten rid of your body has to regulate it at the site of entry the small intestine O Enterocytes only live 3 days so if you don t need the iron you trap it in the enterocyte and store it as ferritin and then the cell dies and it is excreted from your body in waste The majority of iron in the body is located in the Red Blood Cells about 1800mg of iron stored in red blood cells Iron Absorption Active T ransportl enterocyte must let Fe into the body only when its needed 0 Microvilli increase surface area 0 In enterocyte Fe3ferric Fe reduced to Fe2 ferrous Fe by ferric reductase Dcytb duodenal cytochrome b on apical surface 0 Fe transported into cell by transcellular protein DMTl divalent metal transporter 1 Once in cell Fe can be stored as ferritin if not needed If Fe is needed it is exported from the cell by Ferroportin Fe must be in Ferric 3 form to bind to TfR Fe 2 ferrous Fe is oxidized to Fe3 by Hephaestin ferroxidase Fe3 binds to specific serum protein transferrin to keep it bound and not in reactive state to go through blood to tissues that need iron pieel eur eee Elf Fe Fe in P39f Ii a H 1 la i l E a by 1 a a f m Ii gK u 3 u r l l l is I u h fa SHAKE rial lull W T 1 I f ill iii L l1 g In I l l l We ll 1 V 9 r l 5 l u I l d IL LE I A Jul Ll to I 1 Linquot H J l w la 17 Ferns 5 w meleee EDWIN l I IEeee le erel nr aneperter lming quot I fquot phi eetin v39 Esedlatenal Eur i i r r B lirem uptelie Entereeyte rim gut e efeem Cell eerneee diet it neede iren DMlT 1 expreeeed en apical membrane F l l p i li and expreeeed en beeelleterell membrane Fermi Fe in diet redue tel Fernreue Fe by FEIITDU S F39e internalized by DMlT 1 If Fe needed by bedy Fe exported by Fernrepertin FEIITDU S F39e exidiized in F39errie F39e by quot Fernn ie Fe tellen up by T rrene39llelnnirn in eireulleljien tel be treneperted in tissues expressing Trene errin Reeepter 0 Components of the diet that would enhance Fe uptake in the enterocyte 0 Want to eat something more acidic eX Lemonade more iron in the ferrous state and more able to get into the enterocyte 0 A lot of fiber can bind up iron and prevent it from being absorbed bad 0 Iron Absorption Hormonal Regulationl 0 Block Fe Uptake enterocyte I Since Fe that enters the body cant be eliminated the primary route of regulation is the enterocyte I Need to stop Fe from being absorbed or eXported from the enterocyte when Fe is replete O O 0 When Fe is replete liver makes the hormone HEPCIDIN antimicrobial peptide 0 Hepcidin is a hormone that binds to its receptor which is the membrane protein FERROPORTIN 0 When hepcidin binds to ferroportin this ferroportin compleX is internalized and degraded trapping Fe in the cell keeps iron in the enterocyte 0 Hepcidin may also decrease DMTl eXpression on the apical membrane of the enterocyte controversial Hepcidin as a negative regulatory hormone When hepcidin is present it STOPS the absorption of iron high iron hepcidin is present When hepcidin is low you transport iron 0 Iron Uptake by Body T issues Receptor Mediated Endocytosisl 000000 In enterocyte Fe reduced to Fe2 by Ferric Reductase Dctyb Fe imported into cell by DMTl Once in cell Fe can be stored as ferritin if not needed Enterocytes live 3 days Fe2 is oxidized by Hephaestin and binds to Transferrin Transferrin can bind up to two atoms of ferric iron 39 When fully loaded with Fe it is called DIFERRIC TRANSFERRIN 0 A cell must have TfR in order to utilize diferric transferrin receptor that can recognize diferric transferrin and know to separate the iron 0 Receptor Mediated Endocytosis O O O 0 Cells sense that they need iron so make Tle That Tle gets embedded into the cell membrane and sits there waiting for diferric transferrin When the vesicle pinches off from the membrane containing Tle it must be coated with clathrin also contains DMTl Coated vesicle comes into the cell uncoats itself and the clathrin goes back to the cell membrane then gets acidified and iron absorbed into cytoplasm Repeat the process 0 Any cell that eXpresses a receptor for transferrin can ingest the iron by Receptor mediated endocytosis 0 Cellular iron uptake in Erythroid tissue once Fe in bloodstream O O Apotransferrin no Fe on Tf cant bind to the receptor yet TfR increases in response to decreased Fes supply to the bone marrow Steap 3 is ferrireductase in endosome Dcytb is ferrireductase in enterocyte Proton pump in cell vesicle to acidify endosome to pH 55 iron then separates from transferrin 0 Want to get iron out of vesicle into cytoplasm DMTl wants ferric so need Steap 3 to convert it to ferric iron so it can be transported out of the cell 0 That iron can be used by mitochondria to make heme or it can be stored if cell doesn t need it I Stored as Hemosiderin in non Erythroid cells ex In liver Enterocyte takes up Fe by ACTIVE TRANSPORT not receptor mediated endocytosis Summary 0 Tissue specific proteins used to import and export metals such as Fe O Enterocyte actively absorbs Fe with specific membrane associated Fe trafficking proteins 0 Once Fe is absorbed and in systematic circulation bound to Tf cells take up Fe by receptor mediated endocytosis using TfR 0 Fe must be in transferrin bound form to be utilized by Erythroid tissuecell specificity determined expression and number of transferrin receptors 0 Multiple hormones used to regulate physiology of one nutrient hepcidir erythropoietinerythroferrone Atransferrinemia born without transferrin in her blood pale small cells 0 Has receptors but no transferrin 0 Serum ferritin re ects relative level of ferritin in cell because stored ferritin in cell is moved out into circulation Excess Body Fe bone marrow biopsy 0 Liver pancreas and heart can accumulate excess body Fe 0 Excess Fe in cells can increase oxidative damage and cause damage to organ function ex Diabetes Liver Cirrhosis 0 Can detect excess body Fe by taking a tissue sample and looking for Fe deposits called hemosiderin O Erythropoiesis mainly occurs in bone marrow can stain tissue samples from here to determine if iron stores are reduced absent normal or elevated MRI can also be used to detect Fe overload When you have excess iron you make more hemosiderin 0 Insufficient transferrin to bind Fe so not enough diferric transferrin to get internalized into cells yet patients still have Fe overload how does it get into cells I Using another Fe trafficking protein that takes up non transferrin bound Fe NTBI 0 How can you have both anemia and tissue Fe overload I Some cells like Erythroid tissue rely on TfR only to take up Fe Erythroid tissues cant get Fe so anemia develops I But tissues like liver can take up non transferrin bound iron so get iron overload OO 0 Transferrin Bound Non Transferrin Bound Fe 0 Production of heme in Erythroid tissue requires transferrin bound Fe NTBI cannot be used to form heme NTBI cannot upregulate hepcidin Tf Fe regulates hepcidin via TfR O Transferrin bound Fe is the primary physiologic source available to most cells under normal Fe status conditions 0 If too much Fe in circulation Excessive Transferrin Saturation some Fe can also bind to citrate or Non tranferrin bound Fe NTBI O NTBI in the plasma is taken up most avidly by the liver and to a lower extent by the pancreas kidney and heart Excess uptake of this form of Fe can cause oxidant mediated cellular injury 0 0 LIPLabile Iron Pool amount of free Fe in cytosol 0 ZIP14 is the cell membrane protein that takes up non transferrin bound iron into tissues liver and pancreas richly express this 0 Hemochromatosis is iron overload disorder 0 If you block ZIP14 you can block Fe overload in tissues like the liver and pancreas Lecture 5 2316 0 Clinical Application Placental Fe Transport 0 The placenta is lost when the baby is born 0 It needs to respond to both maternal and fetal signals the mother makes hepcidin and later on in gestation the fetus starts to make its own hepcidin 0 An example of a complicated regulatory system in a tissue has some unique proteins as well as the regular ones 0 Stratum layers 0 Passive membrane transport 0 Simple diffusion O Osmosis O Facilitated diffusion glucose and water into aquaporins O Filtration 0 Things to remember 0 The plasma membrane regulates the traffic of molecules into and out of the cell 0 Gases and small hydrophobic molecules diffuse directly across the phospholipid bilayer at a rate proportional to their ability to dissolve in liquid 0 Ions sugars amino acids and sometimes water cannot diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer at sufficient rates to meet the cell s needs and must be transported by a group of integral membrane proteins I Channels I Transporters I ATP powered ion pumps 0 Cells also rely on endocvtosis pinocvtosis exocvtosis and receptor mediated endocvtosis to move substances across the membrane I All ATP dependent processes active transport 0 T issuel O Tissuegroups of cells of similar function and structure combine to form tissues 0 Four basic tissue types I Epithelial covering I Connective support I Muscle movement I Nervous control 0 Epithelium Tissues composed of layers of cells that cover organ surfaces such as surface of the skin and inner lining of digestive tract I Tissues that serve for protection secretion and absorption 0 Functions of the Integumentary Systeml 0 Metabolic functions synthesis of vitamin D in dermal blood vessels 0 Blood Reservoir skin blood vessels store up to 5 of the body s blood volume IHelps us cool our body it can constrict or dilate our blood vessels cool or warm ourselves as necessary 0 Excretion limited amount of nitrogenous wastes are eliminated from the body in sweat excrete salts water 0 Personal eXpression decoration cultural identity 0 Our skin endures a lot of environment and self imposed insult sun chemicals microorganisms 0 Integument 0 Skin has SA of 20 sq ft 0 Skin weighs about 4 5kg 0 Skin is the largest organ in the body 0 61 of college students in 2002 had used a tanning lamp 0 Skin ranges in thickness eyelid v soles of feet IDepending on how much friction that area is enduring 0 Epithelial Tissue Characteristics 0 Supported by underlying connective tissue 0 Interface Tissue I Protection I Absorption I Filtration I Excretion I Secretion I Sensory reception 1 Pro hormone production vitamin D O Specialized contacts desmosomes tight juntions gap junctions Q Polarity basal and apical sides in epithelial tissues where transporters can be very different 0 Avascular and innervated contains no blood vessels but innervation supplied by nerve fibers can sense very light touch sensations O Regenerative rapidly reproduces lost cells by cell division 0 Classification each tissue type given 2 names 39First name denotes the number of cell layers present eX Simple 39Second name shape of its cells eX Cuboidal 0 Epithelia Tissue Classificationl O 1 of cell layers present 39Simple l layer 0 Typically where absorption and filtration occur and a thin barrier is needed 39Stratified 2 or more layers 0 Common in high abrasion areas where protection is appropriate lining of mouth skin surface 39Psuedostratified looks like 2 or more layers but only has 1 O 2 Shape of cells 39Squamous at or scale like nucleus at 39Cuboidal cube like nucleus round 39Columnar column shaped tall nucleus elongated and usually near the base of the cells 39Transitional shape changes from at to cuboidal and back 0 3 Nucleus 39Shape at or rounded 39Where located basal part of the cell or center 0 Facing lumen apical surface 0 Facing connection tissue Basal surface 0EPITHELIA TYPES AND FUNCTIONS 0 Simple Squamousl diffusion osmosis filtration secretion 39Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important 39Secretes lubricating substances in serosae 39Air sacs of lungs lining of heart blood and lymphatic vessels ventral serosae 0 Simple Cuboidall secretion absorption 39Kidney tubules ducts and secretory portions of small glands ovary surface 0 Simple Columnarl secretion absorption 39Secretion of mucus enzymes and other substances 39Ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action 39Absorption INon ciliated digestive tract gall bladder and excretory ducts of some glands ICiliated small bronchi uterine tubes and some regions of the uterus O Pseudostratified Columnarl ISecretion particularly of mucus propulsion of mucus by ciliary action INon ciliated males sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands ICiliated lines the trachea most of the upper respiratory tract 0 Stratified Squamousl IProtects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion INon keratinized type forms moist linings of esophagus mouth and vagina IKeratinized forms the epidermis of the skin a dry membrane IAreas where there is a lot of friction O Transitional IStretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine ILines the ureters bladder and part of the urethra ISeveral layers basal cells cuboidal surface cells are dome shaped 0 Shape and number of cell layers vary depending on if it is stretched 0 Not stretched cuboidal or columnar O Stretched attened and squamous like 0 Stratified Cuboidall I Quite rare I Found in some sweat and mammary glands I Typically only 2 layers thick 0 Stratified Columnarl I Limited distribution in the body I Found in the pharynX male urethra and lining some glandular ducts I Also at transition areas between two other types of epithelia Lecture 6 2516 0 Pruritis itching 0 Basement membrane separates epithelium from underlying connective tissue 0 Basal lamina clear helps isolate cell from chemicals in metabolites that might be present in underlying connective tissue 0 Reticular lamina 0 Connective tissue consists of O Collagen fibers large yellow structures O O O 0 Layers O O O O O O O Reticular fibers a net useful for catching senescent RBCs and metabolizing them in the spleen so reticular tissue is abundant in the spleen Elastic fibers can stretch up to 15 times normal length and then spring back to their original shape I Very important in areas of the body that have a lot of elasticity eX Lungs veins arteries skin ear lobe etc Adipose cells Fibroblasts Macrophage of the integumentl apical to basal Epidermis epiupon Stratum Corneum broad zone 20 30 cell layers thick 39Provide waterproofing layer and protection from abrasion 39Renders body insensitive to environmental abuse 39Dead cells towards the top Stratum Lucidum Visible only in thick skin 39Consists of a few layers of dead keratinized cells 39Clear layer Stratum Granulosum 3 5 cell layers of attened cells 39Intracellular organelles disentigrate bc cant get nutrients from dermis 39Cells have stopped dividing 39Accumulate keratohyaline and lamellated granules slow water loss Stratum Spinosum 39Several layers thick prickly layer of keratinocytes 39Intermediate filaments attached to desmosome 1 Melanin granules and Langerhans cells abundant in this area Stratum Basale stratum germinativum 39 Germinate actively mitotic cells that are gradually moving upwards to be schlepped off 39Single layer usually 39Melanocytes 39This layer forms epidermal ridges ridge patterns basis for fingerprints Epidermis composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting of four distinct cell types and either four or five layers strata 39 most abundant cell type in epidermis produce the protein keratin 0 Provide protectivewaterproofing function Connected to one another via hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils Arise from stratum basale and are pushed upwards surface they are dead Keratin filled plasma membranes epidermis sloughed off and replaced every 25 45 days produce the brown pigment melanin Spider shaped cells Found in deepest layer Melanosomes vesicles where melanin accumulates Moved by motor proteins along actin filaments to the end of the melanocyte s processes and are taken up by keratinocytes giving them a pigment sheild Many mutations can mess up melanocytes eX Albinism vitiligo melanocytes die cyanosis carotenemia jaundice 39 touch receptors tactile cells with sensory nerve endings Found at epidermal dermal junction Least numerous of epidermal cells as you age it gets less responsive dendritic cells epidermal macrophages Star shaped cells Specialized phagocytes that become antigen processing cells after capturing and processing things like microbial antigens in skin 0 Ingest whatever is invading while helping in immune response 0 Outer portion of the skin is eXposed to the external environment and functions in protection 0 Thin epidermis lacks stratum lucidum 39Thickness of plastic wrap 0 Thick epidermis has stratum lucidum 39Thickness of paper towel 0 Dermis has two layers 0 Superficial papillary layer 0 Reticular layer 0 Hypodermis hypobelow O Superficial fascia largely adipose tissue 0 Skin is a microbiome barrier tissue 0 Microbiome population of bacteria and organisms populating our skin and this helps our immune system 0 Skin evolves adaptive immunity to certain microbiota based on its microbiome at that part in the skin 0 Microbiota interact with dendritic cells help to better defend against pathogens that might attack 0 The increase in autoimmune problems might be because the world has become too clean 0 Epidermal ridges project down into dermal ridgesdermal papillae 0 Unique to every person 0 Help increase surface area and increase friction 0 Form in utero 0 Epidermolysis Bullosa mutation where epidermis is not anchored to dermis by hemidesmosomes in basal keratinocytes so not all parts of the body are covered by skin looks like burn victim Lecture 7 2816 0 Rhinorelated to the nose 0 Epidermis O Takes 15 30 days for cells to move to stratum corneum 0 Surface relatively dry not conducive to microorganism growth 0 Barrier maintenance helped by secretion of lipid secretions from sebaceous glands O Insensible perspiration 0 Dangerous uid loss occurs when lose ability to regulate perspiration aka severe burns 0 Dermis O This layer of skin is where dye is injected for tattooing because it will last 0 Leather is made from this 0 Papillary layer I Dermal papillae peg like extensions up into the stratum basale of the epidermis I Dermal papillary ridges I Tension lines are separations from underlying collagen fiber bundles in the reticular layer of the dermis want to cut along the tension lines where collagen aligns because it will reduce scarring I Cleavage lines I Collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis arranged in parallel bundles O Resist force in a specific direction I Cleavage tension lines establish important patterns 0 Parallel cut remains shut heals well 0 Cut at right angle to tension lines pulls open and scars I Meissner s corpuscle I Also a mechanoreceptor towards the top of the dermis within the dermal papillae 0 Light touch 0 Adapt quickly but then action potentials cease I pacinian mechanoreceptor for deep pressure adapt quickly mechanoreceptor for deep pressure little adaptation 0 KEY IDEA integument is innervated mechanoreceptor at the bottom of stratum basale of epidermis I Dehydration skin with decreased turgg remains elevated after being pulled up and released this is a sign of dehydration 0 Sign of Vasoconstrictiondecreased skin turgor 0 Sign of Vasodilationincreased skin turgor O Arteries and veins in our dermis I Arteryaway from heart I Vein towards the heart 0 Hair follicles when smooth muscles contract hair stands up goose bumps I Arrector pili muscle extends from papillary layer of dermis to m of hair follicle I Smooth muscle not under conscious control 0 Reticular layer Hypodermis O Subcutaneous layer deep to the skin 0 Not really part of skin superficial fascia O Composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue anchors skin to underlying structures mostly muscles Clinical Correlate Dermal Epidermal Junction Zone of Basement Membrane Zone BMZ O BMZ anchors epidermis to dermis O Hemidesmosomes in basal keratinocytes attach cell to extracellular structures ie protein fibers in basement membrane I Basement membrane components 0 Lamina lucidaclear layer 0 Lamina DensaDense layer I Anchoring fibrils anchor the epidermis to dermis through lamina densa into the dermis I Anchoring filaments in hemidesmisomes through lamina lucida I Focal Adhesion Complex binds actin cytoskeleton to basement membrane gt lt gtkex epidermolysis bullosa 0 Anchoring fibrils don t attach epidermis to dermis properly I Leads to infection sepsis deformities malnutrition and anemia dehydration 0 Aging and the skin the thickness of the epidermis decreases because regeneration of stratum germanitivum slows O Thinning stratum basal activity declines Sensitivity to infection dendritic cells decrease skin repair slower Hormone production less vit D produced thin skin less substrate Pale skin melanocyte activity declines Dry skin glandular activity declines Always cold blood supply and sweat gland function decreased Hair follicles stop functioning or make thinner finer hair 0 Wrinkling elastic fibers decrease in size and network 0 About 90 of the skin changes of aging caused by the sun 000000 0 MRSA infection where skin is swollen painful warm to the touch full of pus or drainage fever 0 Can spread to blood and lead to septicemia and can be fatal 0 20 in 100 people carry MRSA 0 Layer of adipose tissue under dermis may play antimicrobial role infection adipogenesis cathelicidin pathway I Clinical implication can you boost cathelicidin production and help combat invasive S aureus infections MRSA Lecture 8 2916 I Xerosis dry skin 0 Acralheel 0 Lentiginous freckled I Nevimole I Lentigo brown path on the skin more common in elderly 0 Clinical correlate Skin cancer 0 Fastest growing type of cancer in the US 0 Both UVA and UVB have been linked to skin cancer 0 Skin cancer epidermal origins I Basal cell carcinoma Stratum basale I Squamous cell carcinoma Stratum granulosum or stratum spinosum since they are nucleated and can be mutated I Melanoma melanocytes O Basal Cell Carcinoma BCC I Least malignant and most common skin cancer I Accounts for over 75 of all skin cancers Stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis Slow growing and do not often metastasize Can be cured by surgical excision in 99 of cases 0 Squamous Cell Carcinoma SCC O Originates in epidermal keratinocytes squamous cells stratum spinosumgranulosum cells with nucleus Often thick rough scaly patches can be exophytic grow outwards can bleed or appear as open sores ulcerated Commonly affected individuals include elderly people those with UV light eXposure those with light skin types immunosuppressed subjects and people with inherited skin Melanomal Melanoma is a malignant tumor which originates in the melanocytes which produce the pigment melanin The majority of melanomas are black or brown some can be skin colored pink red blue or white Highly metastatic Lifetime risk for the average American is l The ABCDE s of melanoma 0 Assymetry 0 Border Irregularity 0 Color Diameter don t want it to be bigger than a pencil eraser 0 Evolving changes over time Melanomas of the palms and soles are the most common form of melanoma among Blacks they have less pigment in those areas less melanin present so more likely to sustain damage Four main types of melanomas Superficial spreading melanoma 0 70 of melanomas 0 Long radial growth phase before it becomes invasive 0 Legs and upper back Nodular melanoma 0 20 of melanomas 0 Found twice as often in men than women 0 Little radial growth before vertical growth so less likely to find while pre invasive 1 Lenti o mali na melanoma 0 5 of melanomas 0 Found on sun eXposed areas face neck forearms 0 Prolonged radial growth phase Acral lenti inous melanoma 0 5 of melanomas 0 Palms soles and nail beds 0 Most common form in African Americans and Asians Moh s Surgery highly precise surgical technique used to treat skin cancer I The goal is to remove the cancer while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible I Layers of skin removed and examined under microscope repeated until only cancer free tissue remains I Allows the surgeon to verify that all cancer has been removed at the time of surgery Lymph nodes I Found throughout the body and filter foreign particles and cancer cells I Sentinel lymph node lymph node closest to the tumor I If no cancer cells in the sentinel lymph node the cancer has likely not spread Lymphatic System and Cancerl I System comprised of lymph lymphatic vessels lymphoid tissues lymphoid organs all throughout our body I Nodules of lymphoid tissue form large clusters lymph nodes I When cancer cells metastasize throughout the blood stream they often are spread along lymphatic vessels 0 Lymphatic capillaries offer less resistance to cancer cells one way valve large particles can get out but cant get back in I To find affected lymph nodes inject dye or radioactive substance into tumor and look for the presence of the dye in the closest lymph node Staging of Melanoma TNM I Tthickness of lesion I Nnumber of nodes impacted I Mtypes of metastases present Clark levels of melanoma staging characterized by layer of skin that has been invaded I Level I V I 5 yr Survival rate gets lower as you increase levels Evolving treatments for skin cancer I Early mole removal prior to deep invasion I Cytotoxic chemotherapy immunotherapy high dose IL 2 I Targeted therapy 0 BRAF intracellular signaling pathway O Mutated cell kinase activated constitutively so increased cell growth and proliferation Lecture 9 2 1016 0 Crino secrete 0 Endo within 0 Gland exocrine vs endocrine glands O Exocrine a gland that secretes a substance out through a duct multicellular onto an epithelial surface I Salivary sweat mammary and GI tract glands pancreas liver stomach I Goblet and mucus are unicellular I Exocrine glands can secrete three different ways 0 Holocrine cell ruptures to release contents 0 Most disruptive to gland 0 Merocrine products contained in vesicles and are secreted by exocytosis O No part of gland damaged or lost least destructive 0 Apocrine portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell containing the secretion this is pinched off producing membrane bound vesicles in the lumen 0 Cell isn t destroyed just parts pinched off 0 Endocrine a ductless gland that secretes a substance hormone for export into bloodstream I Autocrine the hormone acts on the same cell type in which it was produced 0 Insulin s effect on pancreatic islet B cells I Paracrine the hormone has its effect locally on cells other than those in which they were produced 0 Produced within one tissue and regulate a different tissue of the same organ 0 Sex steroids testosterone made in leydig cells of testis and has effect on seminiferous tubules to make sperm I Intracrine the hormone acts within the specific cell without ever being released 0 Hormone definition and sites of production 0 Hormone more broadly defined as any chemical irrespective of whether it is produced by a special gland or not for export or cellular use that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs Endocrinologythe study of hormones and endocrine organs Genomic 0 Non genomic OO Second messengers Inhibitory and stimulatory G proteins Intercellular communication 0 Direct communication through gap junction 0 Paracrine communication through extracellular uid 0 Endocrine communication through the bloodstream I Hormones I Target cells are primarily in other tissues and organs and must have appropriate receptors 0 Synaptic communication across synaptic clefts Hypothalamus 0 Master regulator in body produces and releases a number of hormones that signal pituitary that then sends out signals to various target tissues Pituitary 0 Two lobes anterior and posterior O Anterior pituitary endocrine tissue 0 Posterior pituitary neural tissue Thyroid 0 Makes calcitonin T3T4 0 Makes number of substances that are important in metabolism and energy utilization 0 Has 4 small parathyroid glands I Each of these makes parathyroid hormone PTH maintains serum calcium concentration Adrenal glands 0 On top of kidneys 0 Similar to pituitary gland has two sections I Adrenal medulla I Adrenal corteX Pancreas O Islet cells glucagon and insulin Heart Thymus gland O Secretes thymosine Adipose tissue also produces regulatory hormones O Leptin GI tract Kidney O Erythropoietin EPO when you have hypoxia it makes more RBCs 0 Also where active form of Vitamin D is made Gonads Mechanisms of Hormone Actionl O Hormone Binding Protein many hormones have specific plasma proteins that bind hormones and transport through the body I Free hormone not bound to binding protein I Bound hormone bound to carrier protein 0 Hormone Receptor found in target tissues cell must eXpress the receptor for the hormone within or on cell membrane in order to respond to it I Hormones that are not lipid soluble bind to receptors on plasma membrane 0 Hormone Response Elements HRE genes that are responsive to a hormone will eXpress hormone response elements that recognize the hormone receptor compleX and can then increase or decrease eXpression of the target gene I Vitamin D response element VDRE I Estrogen response element ERE I Genomic effect 0 Non genomic primary target is the cell membrane I Rapid onset of action and adaptation to cell membrane I Activationrepression of pre eXisting cell proteins I Set off intracellular second messengers eX G protein on cAMP calcium concentration within the cell I Can have inhibitory or stimulatory effects on target tissues 0 Stimulatoryincrease 2nd messenger G protein activating production of cAMP from ATP 0 Inhibitorydecrease 2nd messenger G protein activating breakdown of cAMP to AMP O Genomic primary action through specific intracellular receptors and HRE on target gene I Gene expression and new protein synthesis Relatively long latency of onset I Organization of cell networks for complete functions I eX steroid hormone genomic effect 0 diffuses through membrane 0 binds to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptor 0 hormone receptor compleX binds to DNA 0 Gene activates 0 Transcription and mRNA production 0 Translation and Protein synthesis Product may be secreted or used within the cell Lecture 10 2 12 16 Effector enzyme adenylate cyclase activation of this by an active G protein converts ATP to cAMP which acts as a second messenger in activating protein kinase 0 cAMP is then broken down by phosphodiesterase Hormone concentrations in the bloodl 0 Concentrations of circulating hormone re ect I Rate of release I Speed of inactivation and removal from the body half life of the hormone usually short 0 Hormones are removed from the blood by I Degrading enzymes I The kidneys I Liver enzyme systems Target cellT issue Activation 0 Target cell activation depends on three factors I Blood levels of the hormone how much free hormone that can bind to receptors I Relative number of receptors on the target cell I The affinity of those receptors for the hormone 0 Receptor can be down regulated or up regulated in response to hormone O Hormone can also up or down regulate its own production Three types of Endocrine Gland Stimuli O Humoral stimulus small differences in the concentration of a certain substance in our capillary blood causes secretion of the hormone I EX Low blood Ca stimulates PTH secretion 0 Neural stimulus preganglionic sympathetic fibers stimulate adrenal medulla cells to secret catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine I Very rapid response 0 Hormonal stimulus hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones I Releasing hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary I Inhibitory hormones inhibit the anterior pituitary If water soluble it binds to cell membrane and cannot easily diffuse through membrane so it would want to affect the surface of the cell non genomic Parathyroid glands 0 There are four on dorsal edge of thyroid gland 0 Contain chief cells secrete PTH in response to drop in blood calcium I These cells contain calcium sensing receptors CaSR I These receptors are Gprotein coupled receptors which sense extracellular levels of calcium ions and release PTH when Ca level is low 0 And Oxyphil cells larger cells no determined function O Responding to a HUMORAL stimuli secretion of hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients Ca in blood I Declining blood calcium stimulated the secretion of PTH I PTH causes Ca concentrations to rise and the stimulus is removed I Parathyroid tissue and Ca sensingl O PTH stimulatesm resorption which is breaking down bone mineral to release primary minerals in bones I Activates osteoclasts calcium and phosphate ions released into blood 0 PTH also stimulates greater calcium absorption from diet in the intestine O PTH causes the kidney to activate vitamin D which tells intestines to make more calcium bonding receptors increase efficiency of calcium absorption I This is NOT humoral it it HORMONAL O PTH increases calcium reabsorption in the kidneys so that they don t filter it into our urine 0 Thyroid gland 0 Contains follicle O Colloid cells storage of iodine in thyroglobulin amp materials to make the thyroid hormone TH O Follicular cells Secrete T3T4 shape changes depending on metabolic activity of gland I Cuboidal less active I Columnar more active 0 Parafollicular cells C cells produce calcitonin when serum calcium is elevated 0 Vitamin D synthesisl Season Latitude Age decreases with age Sunscreen use SPFgt8 block D synthesis Skin tone Cultural practices 0 Lifestyle 0 Other sources of vitamin D 0 Milk and cheese ergocalciferol O Cholecalciferol made by the body in the epidermis I Calcitriol is the name for the active form of Vitamin D make calcitriol when your body needs more calcium 0 Calcidiol is the precursor 0 Vitamin D binding Protein DBP 0 Vitamin D is lipophilic needs a carrier protein 0 D3 in skin or ingest D2 or D3 in diet 0 DBP primary role is to sequester vitamin D sterols in serum OOOOOO I Prolong half life I Preventing the urinary loss of this compound and preserving it for hydroxylation to the active form of vitamin D I Slow entry of D into metabolic breakdown pathways I How do you regulate this 0 negative feedback regulation high level of hormone decreases its synthesis and PTH synthesis 0 DBP 25OHD3 calcidiol is reabsorbed in the proximal tubules of the kidney by the endocytic receptor megalin receptor mediated endocytosis I Calcitriol binds DBP and some is free travels to target tissues where it has effects through genomic and non genomic mechanisms 0 Ability of tissues to use intracrine pathways of calcitriol synthesis is dependent on uptake of 25OHD Lecture 11 2 17 16 0 Adenogland 0 Adenohypophysisgland that grows below 0 Review 0 HRE is located in the DNA of the receptor gene Calcitonin is made in the parafollicular cells c cells of the thyroid gland Parathyroid Hormone is made in the chief cells of the parathyroid gland PTH is produced from a humoral stimuli G proteins mediate both inhibitory and stimulatory responses within the cell Adenylate cyclase is an effector enzyme 0 If you want to measure someone s vitamin D status you measure their 25 hydroxy vitamin D I Vitamin D homeostasis 0 The Vit D you make in your skin is called cholocalciferol O O O O O 0 Specific Vit D binding protein that you ingest or absorb not biologically active must go to liver where it is hydroxylated I If body senses that it is low in Vit D it will produce calcidiol or calcitriol I Hormone travels to target tissues that contain Vit D receptors then you can carry out non genomic hormone action I Hormones stimulate bone to absorb I Also work on kidney to increase calcium reabsorption 0 Rickets 0 If circulating Ca and P concentrations are not maintained at super saturated concentrations to help mineralize our developing skeleton defective bone mineralization will ensue O Rickets a disease of impaired bone mineralization in children before epiphyses of long bones fuseafter bones fuse its called osteomalaysia 0 Causes of Rickets I Calcium vitamin D deficiency nutritional rickets I Genetic disorders of Ca D or phosphorous metabolism 0 Vit D deficiency rickets VDDR Type I 0 VDDR Type II also called hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets HVDRR 0 Signs of rickets I Enlargement of growth plates at wrist I Poor development of epiphyses in wrist I Bowing of legs later on in childhood I Growth retardation 0 UV radiation therapy for Rickets eXposing to UV light bone will mineralize and Ca levels will be enough to support it 0 Ca deficiency rickets levels of vitamin D are normal but still show symptoms of rickets I Increased PTH and severe hypocalcemia tetany convulsions I Softening of skull bones leading to thinning of the cell I Stunted growth I Anemia I Urinary P wasting caused by high PTH leads to more P in urine and less Ca in the urine I Hypophosphatemia I VDR Mutations Type I 0 Vitamin D dependent rickets Type I O Defect in the l alpha hydroxylase gene that converts 25 OHD into the biologically active 125 OH2D 0 Normal 25OHD low 125OH2D 0 Can be treated with physiologic doses of the hormone calcitriol 0 VDR Mutations Type II 0 Hereditary Vitamin D Resistant Rickets HVDRR O Defect in the HR interaction I Hormone binding defects I Deficient nuclear localization I Normal binding to receptor but abnormal binding of HR compleX to DNA 0 Normal 25 OHD and normal or high 125 OH2D 0 Can be treated with infusions of calcium and phosphorous 0 If you don t have functional Vit D receptor that s also involved in hair development could be bald I Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 0 Pituitary gland two parts I Anterior Glandular Tissue 75 weight 0 Shares direct vascular connection with hypothalamus I Synthesizes and releases 6 hormones O O 0 Growth hormone GH stimulates growth of cells but has main effects on liver bone and skeletal muscle Prolactin PRL Stimulates lactation milk production Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH or thryotropin Stimulates thyroid hormone production to impact metabolic rate and heat production Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Stimulates adrenal corteX to release glucocorticoids Follicle stimulating hormone FSH stimulate ovarian follicle development and sperm production Luteinizing hormone LH promotes production of seX hormones I The hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to secrete hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to secrete hormones thyroid adrenal corteX gonads I Posterior neural tissue neurosecretory cells 25 of weight 0 Shares neural connection with hypothalamus extension of the hypothalamus 0 Stores and releases two neurohormones O O Oxytocin Anti diuretic hormone ADH or vasopressin O Hypophyseal Portal System I Connection between superior hypothalamus and inferior pituitary glands I Anterior pituitary shares vascular connection with hypothalamus 0 One capillary network connected to another capillary network portal system 0 Neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus that will stimulate or inhibit release of hormones from the anterior pituitary through this vascular network 0 These hormones then are secreted and travel down the Hypophyseal portal system into the anterior pituitary and will stimulate the target cell type Normally have vein dumping into an artery which then comes in dropping off oxygenated blood and then transported by veins back to the heart 0 Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus releases 0 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone GH RH 0 Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone GH IH 0 Prolactin Releasing Factor PRF 0 Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone PIH 0 Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone TRH 0 Corticotropin Releasing Hormone CRH 0 Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone GnRH 0 Portal Venous System Present when a capillary bed drains into another capillary bed without first going through the heart The portal venous system is the combination of the first and second capillary bed and the veins connecting the two These are not found in many places in the body 0 Hypophyseal portal system 0 Hepatic portal system Often hormones will feedback and inhibit the production of the precursor Hyrpoti riaiamns gland Anterior I Iohe L39 quot e Drv39an Hormone 2 g T l 5 Pituitary W CRH fH39orrnome il r THH i GnRH Target cells Hormone 1 from pituitary TSH ACTH FSH LH Negative feedback Endocirii ie Hormone 2 target from target organ organ Thyroid Thyroid gland hormones Adrenal Gluco cortex corticoidls Testes inhibin ovaries inhrbm Estrogens Ovaries Progestlns Estrogens Testes Andregens KEYquot Ell gill inhibition E A typical pattern or regulation when multiple endocrine organs are involvedi Tlhe hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone FIIH to stimulate hormone production by other glands controi occurs via negative ieedback 2012 Pearson Education Inc 0 Hypothalamus Pituitary and Adrenal Gland O O Adrenal cortex is key organs from the hypothalamus to the pituitary in a hormonal stimuli HPA Access hypothalamus pituitary adrenal access Adrenal gland has outer corteX endocrine tissue and inner medulla neural tissue 0 The major regions of the adrenal gland Stimulation aluminumu campum r l I it n E l i l ll 1quot I11II r minrm ail m a ir lomerulosa mineralocorticoids I Aldosterone salt and blood pressure regulation Iasciculata glucocorticoids I Cortisol metabolic effects increase glucose synthesis Ieticularis gonadocorticoids I Androgens can be converted into testosterone or estrogen 0 Adrenal Medulla amino acid based hormones because nervous tissue I Chromaffin cells catecholamines O O O 0 Epinephrine 0 Norepinephrine O CorteX is filled with smooth ER steroid hormone production 0 Adrenal glands and thyroid gland are organs with the greatest blood supply per g of tissue up to 60 arterioles enter each adrenal gland 0 Case Study I When you give yourself subcutaneous injections you have to rotate injection sites because you re bypassing mechanisms you would regularly have so you ll get abnormal fat deposition in those areas where you keep injecting Posterior Pituitary O Neural tissue from diencephalon O Neurosecretory cells O Storesreleases neurohormones serves as hormone storage region in axon terminals I Stores oxytocin and ADH O NeurthDopthis posterior pituitary and infundibulum 0 The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus O I Hypothalamic neurons synthesize oxytocin and ADH I Oxytocin and ADH are transported along this tract to the posterior pituitary I Oxytocin and ADH are stored in axon terminals in the posterior pituitary I Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire exocytosis of secretory vesicles I Can feedback and inhibit production of stimulating hormones 0 Not vascularized no capillary bed just inferior Hypophyseal artery Lecture 12 2 19 1 6 0 Trophicnourishment O Lactotroph O Somatotroph O Trophic factor 0 1 Atrophy Plturtarrr Summary 1 Eu art W a Glandular earue e Mut pie u erient peel muea a Each ae ili typeL reapenda n 1ilhirter r alimrji i hylmua fra pruluee h a Pi aya erra aaareular capillaryquot lured eunrrer a hypalamua Ire arriteri leiij a f lt f l f l39rnea have Le eeia arr Mtgequot raauea threth nerdy are re earaeu in te eredeurine a grrala hypalamua at Paatar iai39 ri Euiiiari39 r 5 a quot e Neural tt iaarue a traeia rurr hypu rarrma mreuglh in unu trthm prim a Hermenea prelueeul in A I Iquot lm e neurerla m a v n lrieur nrluleua anrd r1u1eleue rl amen he he EIIIJ39EE in il39E39LEEHIEIE39LE irI Finatam F u Eeieaaecl by in reap te neurall aiynia imam hylmrra L aignaria rmer 0 Thyroid Hormone and the Mitochondria Thyroid hormone T3 has a regulating effect on mitochondrial activity T3 in uences the nuclear genome of a cell Thyroid hormone increases oxygen consumption and heat production Short term effect occur and are sensitive to inhibitors of protein synthesis I Impacts Ca signaling within minutes I Serves to allow mitochondria to respond to acute changes in the environment 0 Nuclear effects occur I T3 dependent transcription factors of mitochondrial genome 0000 0 Review 0 Abdominopelvic quadrants I Right Upper Quadrant I Left upper Quadrant I Right Lower Quadrant I Left lower quadrant O For anterior pituitary know I All the different cell types present I What s the releasinginhibiting hormone I What are they producing
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