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Introduction to World Geography 2/16-2/18

by: Mary Carlos

Introduction to World Geography 2/16-2/18 GR 1123

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Geography > GR 1123 > Introduction to World Geography 2 16 2 18
Mary Carlos
GPA 2.7
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About this Document

South America
Intro World Geography
Sarah Radencic
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Carlos on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Radencic in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Intro World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
T est T wo Tuesday, February 16, 2016 3:14 PM  Reminders and Announcements o Map Quiz due Friday 2/19  Watch the video on YouTube that was sent in the announcement from Thursday 2/11  South America  Fun Facts about South America o Contains 12 states o Mountains in the west; Amazon Basin in the East o Most of the continent's population lives in Brazil o Most of the populace lives on the coasts o Contains the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela (over 3200 ft) o South America is the 4th largest continent by landmass o More than 20% of Earth's Oxygen is produced in South America (rainforests) o Brazil has won more world cups than any other country in the world o 51% of the SA population speaks Portuguese o Rich in natural resources  Gold, timber, water, oil  Physical geography o Longest continent from North to South  4750 miles long  Chile is 90 miles wide but 2500 miles long  Brazil is the fifth biggest country in the world o The size of the SA allows it to have a wide variety of climates and vegetation  Mostly tropical rainforests  Argentina is one of the most diverse with 5 different climate zones.  Physical Regions o Andes Mountains  The world longest mountain chain  23000 ft high; 4300 miles long  Rocky mountains are only 3000 miles long o Amazon Basin  2nd longest river in the world  Mostly located in brazil o Brazilian Highlands  Comprises of several small mountain ranges o Pampas  The "Great Plains" of SA, mostly in Argentina  Combination of several cultures o Most were well established by year 1000 o Predominately lived in areas called altiplanos  Capitol: Cusco, Peru  Very advanced for the times o Built huge buildings, roads, bridges in the mountains o Practiced surgery, and were great military strategists o Terracing o Known for potatoes and how to freeze dry and store meat  Mit'a o Mining, building bridges, building homes for the nobles, temples, helping with various fields  Emperors fields, wore their best clothing, sang song praising the Inca  People's fields were taken care of first'  The widows, the handicap and the sick  Tin  Spanish Conquest o Led by Conquestador Francisco Pizarro o In 1531 Spanish arrived and enslaved the Incan Empire  Used the existing empire for their benefit  Forced the Incan people into mining silver  Land Alienation o Hidden Civilization: Machu Picchu o Silver mining created huge wealth for the spanish  Spread their colonies to Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay  Potosi o Meanwhile the Portuguese took over the indigenous populations in Brazil o 90% of the indigenous population died of disease and dangerous working conditions  Reminders and Announcements o Quiz3 on Europe: DUE TOMORROW AT 5PM  Formation of Vice Royalty o Vice - Latin for "in the place of" o Roi - French for "king" o Formed to help the Crown control populations in territories around the globe: o 3 Spanish viceroys established in South America  Peru (1542-1824)  Richest area.  All of SA except for Brazil  Nueva Granada (1717-1819)  Bogotá  Present day Columbia  Ecuador  Panama  Venezuela  La Plata (1776-1814)  Buenos Aires  Argentina  Uruguay  Paraguay  Bolivia  Independence from Europe 1800s-1900s o Spurred by the American and French Revolutions  Made Spain nervous o Spain relinquished some claims in SA choosing to focus on Spain mainland  Argentina 1816  Chile 1818  Peru 1821 o Simon Bolivar "the great El Libertador", helped free other states:  Venezuela  New Granada (columbia)  Ecuador  Bolivia (named in his honor)  Other Independence o Brazil become independent in 1822 after Portugal was invaded by Napoleon o Uruguay from 1828 Brazil and Argentina o Guyana from the UK in 1966 o Suriname from the Dutch in 1975 o French Guiana currently remains under French Control  Second largest French area  African Descendants o Sugar was the huge crop of Brazil o Unlike the Spanish, Portugal had no slave population to help with plantation work, mining o Half of all slaves brought to the Americas ended up in Brazil o 198 million Africans live in Brazil today  South American Union o UNASUR- Union of South American Nations  2008  Trying to establish a single currency  Shared defense (armies, navy's, air forces)  Easier passport passage for members  Build better infrastructure (highways, high speed rail, canal system) o Not quite effective….  Political posturing  Fight of control of resources  Some countries not interested  South American Economic Geography o Brazil has the most influence o Argentina o Chile, Guyana, Peru SILVER o 1st - agriculture  Sugar, soy bean, coffee o 2nd- manufacturing  Chemicals, electronics, textiles, biofuels o 3rd- oil production  Brazil and Venezuela o Unevenly developed  Only contained to brazil, Chile, and Argentina's urban areas (coasts) o Political instability for most countries  Mercosur - the "southern common marker" o Purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency o Economic bloc containing Member States and Associate States o FULL MEMBERS: Brazil, argentina, urguay, paraguya, and venezuela o Mexico and New Zealand observe these rights even though they are not a part of South America  SA Urbanization o City populations have grown steadily since 1950 o >80% of the populations in urban  And growing fast o Cities provide opportunities  Increased chance of making more money  Receive better education for their children  More "things" to do  SA Urbanized population o Megacites:  Cities that contain more than 10 million people  Bogata, Lima, Santiago 10 MILLION  Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo (largest), Buenos Aires >23 MILLION PEOPLE  Poverty in SA o Disparity of Rich and Poor  Favelas  Slums around big cities  Problems in SA o Disparity of rich and poor o Slums produce crime and disease o Very high levels of corruption  Columbia: drug trade  Venezuela murder rate is ten times higher than the US  Coco leaves are used to make cocaine but also used as a medicinal herb  In addition to silver and gold can also get gemstones and iron from Mining in SA  Human Geographic regions in SA o The caribbean North o The andean west o The southern cone o Brazil  The caribbean north region o Platation type lifestyle with european influence in guyana, suriname, and french guiana  Population mostly along the coast o Columbia and venezuela rich in farming, ranching, and mining  Population is somewhat inland than on the coast  Columbia o Population tends to congregate in the andean mountains a d in the north interior o Coffee is the largest export  Narcotics are next; 70% of the us cocaine comes from columbia o Cartels influence the political system, army and police  Fight for control of the trade, network and growing of coca plants  Almost overthrew the government in 1999 o In some cases cartels have their own army to fight the state and police  Insurgent states o Several stages:  Contention: a rebellion forms and sustains itself within the countries boarders  Equilibrium: forms territories within the country  At this stage insurgent state is established in which the secede or bring down the government  Counteroffensive: legitimate state or country tries to take back control of insurgent area  Sometimes outside help  Failed State o Measured on a spectrum (failed state index, FSI) o A product of  Social indicators  Refugees, boarder disputes, large vengeance seeking group  Economic indicators  Uneven economic development, group based poverty or inequality  Sharp and or sever economic decline  Political factors  Criminalization of government officials  Public services deteriorate  Widespread human rights violations


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