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soc 108

by: Briana montgomery
Briana montgomery

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Intro to Sociology
Gregory Maddox
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana montgomery on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 108 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Gregory Maddox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
SOC-108 SIUC –MR. Maddox Notes culture as a tool kit symbols stones and worldviews that people can use in different configurations to solve different kinds of problems language and culture the creation and transmission of culture depends heavily on the capacity to develop symbols symbols things that stand for or represent something else and also include gestures language a system of interrelated symbols words through which a group of people are able to communicate and share information hypothesis of linguistic relativity our perception of reality is at the mercy of the words and grammatical rules of our language -language shapes our reality -studies demonstrate that language significantly (but not completely) shapes thought cultural diversity humans are basically the same biologically cultural diversity must be explained by non-genetic factors  cultural diversity within societies is promoted by social category, subcultures, and countercultures social category  -a group of people who share a social characteristic, eg-age sex, religion,etc subcultures a group that is part of the dominant culture but differs from it in some important respect -by tradition, Americans like to see themselves as a part of a large, single culture. yet there are many subgroups with cultural uniqueness multiculturalism -emphasis on the cultural uniqueness of subgroups(diversity) counterculture subculture that is deliberately and consciously opposed to aspects of the dominant culture  openly defies norms, values, and /or beliefs of the dominant culture  -rebelling against the dominant culture is central to their members ( going against mainstream culture)  examples military movement,skinheads,hippies countercultures and terrorism terrorism the illegal use of violence or threats of violence to intimidate a government,group,or an individual in pursuit of a political, religious,economic,or social goal ethnocentrism the tendency to judge other individuals or cultures based on one's own cultural standards -a belief that your groups was is the best and normal way is to do things - taken to an extremes,can result in feeling of superiority of one's group over other -does have some advantage, integration, monate,loyalty,cooperation,stability vs. cultural relativism evaluating another person's group behaviors,thoughts,etc based on the cultures standards(not one's own) -values,norms,beliefs,and attitudes are not in themselves correct or incorrect -they exist within the cultural framework of a people not necessarily universal -should be evaluated in relation to their place within their larger cultural context culture shock the psychological and social stress we may experience when confronted with a rationally different cultural environment -example going to different country and not use to their food cultural universals genera cultural traits that exist in all known societies although found in all societies their expression varies -reasons for cultural universals biological similarity of humans -common limitations of sustaining social life - expanding technology “global village” culture and heredity instincts are genetically inherited, complex patterns of behavior that always appear among members of a species under specific conditions - do not label our reflexes or those learned behaviors so common even subconscious that they seem instinctive ( humans have very few)  most human social behavior is learned middle adulthood -choices are made to either continue the path already taken or establish a different life path. -acceptance of one's level of achievement occurs at the end of this stage Emphasis of success is replaced by concern with personal relationships and small pleasures in life. late adulthood socialization roles are lost because status are lost expected to retire from work generally face the loss of spouse life course models causals 1 models of adulthood are based primarily on males 2 not all people follow the same pattern 3 age ranges are only an approximation mass media function of mass media -provides valuable information -promotes social continuity and integration -provides entertainment - explains and interprets meanings of events and information -helps mobilizes a society -dysfunction of mass media -can foster panics -increases social conformity -legitimates the status quo -impedes social change while promoting social continuity and integration - diverts the public from serious issues through trivial entertainment - shapes views through editorializing as they interpret events and information -encourages violence via public mobilization -means of communication designed to reach the general population -children learn behavior expected of individuals in certain social statuses -the media display role models for children to imitate -


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