Week #5 Lecture Notes
Week #5 Lecture Notes 103
Popular in Life 103- Biology of Organisms
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Week #5 Lecture notes Phylum Gnetophyta -has 3 genera -tend to thrive in desserts and tropics -cones are fleshy Genus Ephedra -located in the Southwest dessert -uses: meth Genus Welwitschia -located only in Southwest Africa -2 leaves keep growing and will split, giving appearance that there is more than just 2 leaves -endangered, have the ability to live hundreds of years Phylum Coniferophyta -largest gymnosperm phyla -majority are evergreens -photosynthesis during all seasons -sailors planted the North American pine on islands to use them for masts if they ever got stranded Douglas fir -used for housing development European larch -located in Swiss Alps Bristlecone Pine -located in California and Colorado up in the mountains -Grow very slow, enabling them to live thousands of years. Sequoia -largest organism based on volume and mass -Climate change threatens its existence Wollemia pine -naturally found in Australia -thought to be extinct Lazarus effect Common Juniper -used for spice and gin In case of gymnosperms, the tree would be the sporophyte -Sporophyte is 2n -Microsporangium (2n) are inside the cones -Pollen grains are (n) -Pollen grains go through meiosis when they land on the ovule Angiosperms 5 traits of seed plants 1. Reduced gametophytes (microscopic gametophytes protected by sporophytes) 2. Heterospory (spores of 2 sexes) 3. Ovules 4. Pollen 5. Seeds Angiosperms have one phylum, the anthophyta. -have flowers, fruits, and seeds Flower -Tend to have successful reproduction because they attract pollinators and animals. This makes flowers very diverse. -have different colors, scents, and symmetry Amorphophallus titanium -largest unbranched inflorescence -blooms for a few days -corpse flowers fragrance imitates rotting flesh to attract flies for pollination -located in Sumatra -can rach 6ft tall RAfflesia schadenbegiana -corpse flower -largest florescence in diameter -blooms for 5 days -located in Indonesia and Malaysia Wolffia Arrhizia -smallest angiosperm Sepal-modified leaf that surrounds the bud Petal-modified leaf Stamen and carpel- highly modified leaves Carpel -has the ovary, style and stigma -stigma receives pollen -style is where pollen lands Pistil fused carpels Female gametophyte embryo sac that develops in the ovule Stamen Has the microsporophyll, anther, and pollen sacs (also known as microsporangium) Complete Flower -has all 4 modified leaves (petals, sepal, carpel, stamen) Incomplete flower -don’t have 1 or more of the modified leaves Perfect flower -has male and female parts All complete flowers are perfect flowers, but not all perfect flowers are complete Selfing plants plants that are able to pollinate themselves. -perfect plants can self-pollinate Ways to prevent selfing -gametophytes are incompatible -pollen tube doesn’t grow due to certain proteins -stamens and carpels can be different lengths -sporophytic self-incompatibility the sporophytes fail Pollen -dispersal method influenced shape and function of pollen grains -outside of pollen has sporopollenin Life cycle of angiosperm 1. Microsporophytes (2n) undergo meiosis and produce a microspore (n) 2. Ovule (2n) undergoes meiosis and produce megaspore (n) 3. Pollen grain land on stigma, grows down to ovary and 2 sperm enter the egg, fertilizing it 4. Have a zygote (2n) and triploid tissue (3n) becomes endosperm that provides nutrients 5. Embryo is (2n) and breaks loose of seed coat (2n) and germinates Cotyldons -1 or 2 first seed leaves in angiosperms -2-24 for gymnosperms Hypogeal cotyledons -aren’t able to photosynthesize because they are underground -function store starch Epigeal cotyledons -photosynthesize because they are above ground -when seed is germinated, the epigeal cotyledons break through the seed coat Fruit -ovary that has matured -can be fleshy or dry -function seed protection and dispersal Simple fruits -single or compound ovary -in a single carpel Simply fleshy -berries, drupes -Berries single ovary Ex bananas, oranges, blueberries, tomatoes Pipo watermelons, squash, pumpkins. Special berries with a tougher exterior -drupes exocarp and mesocarp is fleshy, but has a hard endocarp. Ex stonefruits, coconuts, mangos, olives Aggregate -single flower with many carpels -blackberries Multiple -Inflourescence several flowers fuse together -Every fruit came from one of those flowers -Fruits merge together -pineapple and figs (in figs, the flower is inside and is pollinated by the fig wasp) Bread fruit Joseph Banks wanted to bring this fruit to provide substantial food to slaves. But his sailors mutinied and remained on the island. By the time Banks brought back the bread fruit trees, slaves was abolished Simple dry fruits -dandelions and dots on strawberries Legume -clover, peanuts, beans, soy -Aspergillus fungus that attacks peanuts and causes liver cancer Nut -The wall of the ovary turns into a hard coating/shell Indacesent don’t open when mature -acorns Angisoperm diversity 1. Monocots once cotyledon 2. Eudictos 2 cotyledons and “true” dicots Basal Angiosperms -3 oldest lineages 1. Amborella trichopoda 2. Star Anise 3. Water lilies Magnolids -closer in relation to monocots and eudicots than basal angiosperms -Laurels, black pepper plants, magnolias Monocots -make up 25% of angiosperms -60,000 species -Multiples of 3 -Parallel veins Palms -around at end of the Cretaceous period -2,600 species -Tropical -Talipot palm Larges inflorescence due to their leaves being 5m in diameter. They produce once then they die Grasses -10,000 species -Family Poaceae -Bamboos, wheat, sugarcane, rye, maize Orchids -22,000 species -bilaterally symmetric -could be largest family of angiosperms. Asteraceae is a close second Eudicots -2/3 of angio sperms -2 cotyledons -veins are net like - vascular tissue arranged in a ring -taproot -3 openings on pollen grain -multiples of 4 or 5 Angiosperms and animals -Flowers that are bilateral symmetrical tend those have more species than those that are radially symmetrical. -Why? -Bilateral can be more specific to certain pollinators -Bilateral tend to affect the movement of pollinators more than radial -Gene flow is decreased in diverging populations Plants and people -seed plants are packed with nutrients important for human civilization -80% of food crops are wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, cassava, and sweet potatoes -Artificial selection has led to modern crops Threats to biodiversity -loss of habitat (affects both plants and animals) -within 100-200 years, we could lose 50% of plant species Plant structure 3 main organs 1. Roots transport water and minerals 2. Stems used for support 3. Leaves transport sugars Roots -multicellular -anchor the plant -absorb water and minerals -store nutrients Root hairs -increase surface area to absorb more water and minerals Taproot -1 main root -lateral roots branched Advenitious roots arise from stems or leaves. Includes… 1. Fibrous roots a. Seedless vascular monocots 2. Proproots a. Aerial roots b. Provide support 3. Strangling roots a. Support plant by growing around objects b. Strangler fig i. Epiphytes ii. Roots grow down and around the tree iii. Stem grows up 4. Climbing roots a. Provide support b. Negatively phototrophic grow towards darkness and away from light stimulus Pneumatophores -roots that grow above ground -allows for gas exchange in wet and flooded environments -common in mangroves Buttress roots -provide support Storage roots -taproots -lateral roots -store carbohydrates Haustorial roots -parasitic plants -use other plants to obtain water and nutrients -Ex mistletoe, dodder, snow plants Stem -nodes place where leaves are attached -internodes part of stems that are between the nodes Axillary bud -produce a lateral shoot or branch Apical bud -located at shoot tip -helps young shoots grow taller and elongate Modified stems Corm -storage stem located beneath the surface -Ex taro, gladiolus, saffron Rhizome -horizontal -beneath he surface -sends out roots and shoots -Ex ginger, poison grass, Bermuda grass Stolon -horizontal along the top of the ground -advenitious roots -at the end of each stem is a clone -Ex strawberries and several grass species. Bulbs -underground stems -modified leaves -function storage during periods of dormancy -Ex garlic and onions Leaves The leaves of most vascular plants are the main photosynthetic organ Types of leaves 1. Simple leaf single leaf per stem 2. Compound leaf complex petiole 3. Double compound leaf has several leaflets Modified leaves Bract -part of reproductive structure -tend to be brightly colored -usually confused as the flower, but it’s not the flower Ex poinsettia Tendrils -function climbing and attaching to surfaces -can photosynthesize -thigmotrophic stimulus is touch Ex pea plant Spines -modified leaf -used for defense -seen in xeriphytes plants that prefer dry environments Thorns -modified stem Prickles -modified epidermis -Ex roses (the nomenclature usage of thorns referring to roses are actually prickles) Storage leaves -store water, nutrients, and toxins Succulents -cacti -iceplants -agave Source Dale Lockwood lectures in Life 103
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