HIST 100 Roman Republic in its Prime
HIST 100 Roman Republic in its Prime 70142 - HIST 100 - 013
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70142 - HIST 100 - 013 at George Mason University taught by Susan E Schulze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Formation of the Republic (510BC31BC) 510BC500BC Constitution (Serrati) created a Bicameral (dualbody) governing system o Patrician Senate – initially held all the power of the government o Plebeian Assembly – became a formal component of the government alongside the Patrician Senate, but they still had limited power (really only to petition) o 2 Consuls: imperium and pontifex – A weakened executive branch, made to prevent tyranny. Make sure that the laws made by the Patrician Senate were executed. There are two consuls, and each one has the power to veto the other to maintain balance. Each consul is also a Pontifex Maximus (high priest, first ‘pope’ kind of figure). Only Patricians can be a Consul. These Consuls also conduct ceremonies to ensure success from the Gods. The Imperium is a military power, they have the power over every man in their army (usually equites or plebs), power over their very lives. If a consul shows signs of creating tyranny, they are killed on the spot. Consuls only had one year to rule (but this changes as the republic ages) Evolution of the republic: o Expansion of Plebeian Authority 494BC: Conflict of the Orders: Plebeian curiate – The tension between the Plebeians and the Patricians came to its height since they were not allowed to have political power even if the Plebeian was wealthy (it’s not a battle between rich and poor, a battle between rich and rich). So the Plebeians just up and left, making a new town and they created a Plebeian Assembly Tribune, their executive. The Patricians caved very quickly since Plebeians did everything in society. They farmed fields, they fought in wars, and they cared for the Republic. The Patricians couldn’t do anything without them. So the Patricians recognized the Tribune, and gave them a political vote in the government. 462BC: Terentilius – The tensions are still in place, but this time its involving judicial inequality. If a wealthy plebeian had a bone to pick with patricians, the patrician could be tempted to just take away everything the plebeian has. Terentilius is a plebeian Tribune, and he believed the very life of the republic was in danger. He proposed to write down all the laws so nobody could cheat them and the law will be balanced between the classes so another civil war doesn’t spark. It took just about ten years to get this passed, finally they agreed to write the laws down. 450BC: Decemvirs and the codification twelve tables – A group of ten men, five patricians and five plebeians, and they were responsible to write down the laws of Rome. It takes over a decade to complete, and the laws are called The Twelve Tables. This law code is set into stone and paper, then shown in temples. And these laws were strictly followed and were intimately worshipped, some even sacrificed to these laws. These laws limited the power of the patrician judges so they had to stop making up whatever they want about the law and now they have to follow written rules. This gave the plebeians a framework to influence laws with their power in the Tribune, this is the vehicle in which plebeians carve their mark into the Roman government. o Plebeian authority reshaped through law (Lex = Law) 445BC: Lex Canuleia – intermarriage between castes – allowing Patricians and Plebeians to intermarry, enables social mobility. Male Patrician marries Female Plebeian, their children are then Patricians. 367BC: Lex Licinia Sextia – Consulship – Allows the Plebeians to have access to the consulship. But they still couldn’t become consuls because they couldn’t become priests 300BC: Lex Ogulnia – Priesthood – Allows Plebeians to become priests, thus making them able to become a consul. (But there is evidence that Plebeians were consuls before this) 287BC: Lex Hortensia – Quintus Hortensius – Transfers full legislative power to the plebeians. The Circuli were lobbyists that moved around and talked to powerful plebeians that hope to influence their vote on laws. Patricians didn’t exactly like them. (StrachanDavidson and O’Neill) o Roman Territorial Expansion in Italy Rome picks up some enemies Post 510BC – Etruscans expelled to the north (Serratti: the treaty of 509) 390BC – Celtic Invasion (Serrati: the treaty of 348) Celtics owned most of central Europe and then they move to East and to the modern British Isles. They also went to Eurasia and became the Galatians. Are allied with Etruscans. They unite and sack Rome (pretty much a genocide, everything with a beating heart was killed and villages are burned). 340338BC – Latin League War – Dissolution of the Latin League – The Latin League begins to dissolve because Rome wanted to reap all the spoils of their endeavors. The Latin League is now their enemy, and now Rome is surrounded by enemies. So, to try to keep themselves safe they conquered new land to create new buffer zones to keep a distance between them and their enemies. One a buffer zone is created, then another, and another. 338 Marks acquisition of Latium. – Rome’s first territory. Then as time goes on, Rome keeps spreading and taking more and more land. When Rome hits the end of Italy, they aspire for a full Mediterranean conquest. They want to own Sicily, but the Greeks are already there. Carthiginians across the sea want to own Sicily as well. Greeks ask Rome for help, and Rome readily helps but then defeats both parties and take over. Evolution of the Roman Republic cont. o Roman territorial expansion in the Mediterranean (imperialistic) Main Target is Carthage (Keita, Quillin, Serrati, and Johannesen) In Serrati’s writings, they analyze the treaties between Rome and Carthage. Before 300, Carthage had the upper hand. After 300, during the wars, it was obvious that Rome and Carthage were equals, but then by the end of the wars, Rome clearly had an upper hand on Carthage and was now the superpower about to take over. o Punic and Macedonian Wars. Scipio Africanus of Rome and Hannibal of Carthage – Consuls/Generals (Scipio’s father kills Hannibal’s father. Hannibal then kills Scipio’s father, giving both of them reasons to fight each other) o First Punic War 264BC241BC – Rome and Carthage. Rome is built from Roman citizens. Carthage hires their troops as mercenaries. Because of the expense of the war, Carthage wasn’t able to pay the mercenaries, and so then its own troops turned on them. Rome was recovering while Carthage kept at war. (Rome gained all the Italian peninsula, most of the islands in the Med. Sea to the west, and along the coast of modern Spain) For Carthage, the Mercenary Wars 240238BC o Second Punic War 218202BC – Provoked by Hannibal, he crosses a border and it o draws in the Romans. Hannibal wants to create a double front for Rome to fight. Hannibal allied with Phillip of Macedonia (who collected Celts and Etruscans to wreak havoc on Northern Italy) to create a second front to split Roman forces and weaken them. Scipio Africanus was one of the consuls of Rome controlling one part of the military. Rome was able to stay strong with split forces and wins the battle with both Carthage and Macedonia and that was the fall of Carthage. Scipio does this by attacking Carthage at its source, which made Carthage call Hannibal back for defense, destroying the Carthaginian organized forces. Rome then goes to war with Greece (the Macedonians) and by the end of the third war, Greece was owned by Rome. First Macedonian War 218202BC Second Macedonian War 200189BC Third Macedonian War 172168BC (Quillin) At the end of this war, Rome wins and gains everything that Macedonia/Greece had, so they controlled the Black Sea and Egyptian grains. Also started the Roman dole system, giving Roman citizens portions of grain to keep them happy. o Third Punic War 149146BC – Rome picks this fight, a man named Cato made speeches to the people, each speech ending with “We should destroy Carthage.” The Roman government eventually agreed and sent a message to Carthage. They ordered them to move 50 miles from the coast and they will be left alone. There is no way that Carthage could say yes, because they would be destroyed. It’s a loselose situation for them. Carthage says no and Rome goes to war. Scipio Africanus and Hannibal went to war one last time in their lives. The war came to an end with a treaty, and many accounts remark how well Scipio and Hannibal got along and respected each other. Rome leveled Carthage, but was rebuilt years later as a Roman city. The last resistance of Carthage, Rome wins and that is the very last stand of Carthage. Rome is the ruler of the Mediterranean. This also marks the end of the Plebeian conflict. o (All happening during the wars) Rome is looking to take over the North of Europe, the Baltic was producing timber, furs, and amber (which was thought to be solid sunlight, more valuable than gold). Also wanted stuff from Britannia (modern Britain) like tin and textiles. Soon after the third war Rome took complete control over the Greek peninsula and took a hold of Marseilles, a major trading port. Rome wanted to control all trade in the Mediterranean Sea by capturing all trade strongholds to impose taxes on all trade. o Green, before Punic wars. Orange, after all the wars. o Eastern Mediterranean Gaul and Egypt 100BC31BC KEY: Processes Authors People Key Words Legal document/charter (written as Lex (law) the name of the person who wrote it) Classical Warfare In old times, wars were found on a cyclical cycle. Wars were found based on agricultural seasons, battles were fought when the harvest was plenty so they could steal all their resources. But when the new long wars came into play, the men were away for months and years. Quiz format: First two questions about the main timeline, what came in what order. Other questions will ask about processes of change in the time period (ex. Classical Antiquity times, Mediterranean Colonization). Identify a stage in the process to elaborate on, cause and effect, consequences (ex. Greeks taking over most of Europe on the coasts to get food and control trade). Identify a person/people who influenced the times and what was their cause and effect on the time (ex. Ashur Nasir Pal II, Greeks, Phoenicians, Etruscans, but must be different than in the stage)
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