HIST150 The French Revolution
HIST150 The French Revolution History 150
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
HIST150 The French Revolution 1789-1799 3 Aspects • Ordinary people entered the political l scene and influence the course of events • Reforms base on Enlightenment ideology • The emergence of nationalism Background • Louis XVI: Absolute monarch in a state on the verge of financial collapse, convened the Estates General in May of 1789 – tax reform • EstatesGeneral: a representative body that has not met since 1614, was made up of Three Estates : Clergy, Nobility, Commoners (98% of the pop.) • (TQ) Relationship between the Three Orders: Third estate is carrying the weight of the other two Estates (photo). Inequality built into the system made contention. • May 1789: The Estates General met at Versailles; didn’t do anything b/c of a dispute over the vot ing procedure; GRIDLOCK ****The First Steps in the Revolution • June 17 – the Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly • June 20 – the Tennis Court Oath – members of the National Assembly swore an oath to stay together until France had a constitution • ****July 14 – THE STORMING OF THE BASTILLE . Peasants broke in there and got guns to protect themselves. • Louis changed his mind of calling out the troops rd • TQ The 3 Estate Awakens (photo) The Enlightenment and R eforms of the National Assembly • Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen (Aug. 1789) o Many points inspired by Enlightenment thinkers John Locke, Voltaire, etc. • New Penal Code: Dr. Joseph Guillotine’s proposal: any person convicted of a crime punishable by death would be decapitated • Created a constitutional monarchy ; Legislative Assembly elected, constitutional monarchy War, Regicide, and Nationalism, 1792 -1795 • Louis XVI unsuccessful attempt to flee France; Rulers of Austria and Prussia invited other European monarchs to use force to reestablish the monarchy in France o King is swine (photo) • France declared war on Austria and Prussia (April 1792) • By September, The National Convention; it abolished the monarchy and declared France a REPUBLIC o Robespierre and members of the Jacobin Cl ub: “Liberty, equality, and fraternity” • Jan 1793: EXECUTION of Louis XVI – regicide o Other European countries joined a collation against France o Committee of Public Safety, 12 men, absolute power, Spring 1793 § Controlled by Robespierre and members of the Jacobin Club (political club) *****Developments that Reflect the emergence of Nationalism • Committee of Public Safety issued a universal mobilization decree o Wanted young men, wives, women, and children, and also old men to do their share • Army numbered 1,169,000 – NEW KIND OF ARMY o Nations army, not King’s army o The citizens is born, lives, and dies for the fatherland • Patriotic march – “The Marseillaise” o The national anthem in 1795 • The appearance of Marianne as the symbol of the French Republ ic o Rooster: People of France o Bare breasted: Nurturing o Carpenters level: equality • Reign of Terror: Sept. 93’-July 94’ o Guillotine c. 40,000 people killed (named after its cheap promoter) o Used until 1981 when France abolished the death penalty
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