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Bisc 130 test 5 notes

by: Victoria Kemp

Bisc 130 test 5 notes Bisc 130

Victoria Kemp
LA Tech
GPA 3.0
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Kyle Kemege

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the final test of the quater
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Kyle Kemege
Class Notes
#evolution #population #carryingcapacity
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Biology

Popular in Natural Sciences and Mathematics

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Kemp on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bisc 130 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Notes for Kemege test 5 Molecular cloning Frequently used in molecular biology labs Overview 1 2 3 Isolate gene for protein of interest a Need high concentration of gene DNA Put gene into vectorPlasmid a Plasmid optional additional small chromosome used in bacteria Put plasmid into bacteria a The commonly used one in lab is Ecoli Let bacteria grow a Will express the gene and make the protein Break open the bacteria and purify your protein from others How to get a high concentration of gene of interest Obtaining genome DNA from source organism cells 1 Problem low yield of DNA 2 Solution arti cially amplify gene from source DNA Like DNA replication but just for one gene 3 Polymerase Chain ReactionPCR PCR has many applications beyond molecular cloning 4 PCR starting material Source DNA 0 Can be low concentration Nucleotides DNA polymerase DNA Primers Complementary to sequences on either end of gene ofinterest 1 Heat to determine unwind doublestranded DNA a DNA Pol Needs a singlestranded template 2 Cool to allow DNA Primers to bind 3 Heat slightly to allow DNA Pol To extend Primers replicate DNA a Repeat 13 dozens of cycles b Use a thermal cycler machine to adjust temp at timed intervals i Problem DNA Pol Denatures unfolds at high temp used in step 1 1 No longer active a Solution use DNA poly From an organism that lives in very hot environments i Would ve evolved enzymes that function at high temps ii Hot spring bacteria 1 Ex Thermus Aquaticus Tac Pol How to get plasmids Are naturally occurring in many bacteria Easily puri ed from bacteria Many have been arti cially modi ed to be better for molecular cloning How to cut open plasmid and seal in GeneInsert Restriction Endonucleases o AKA restriction enzymes Cut DNA at a very speci c sequence Many restriction enzymes exist have different sequences where they cut 0 Sequence is an inverted repeat palindrome e Live net en evil Ex GAA39ITC C39ITAAG Opposite strands read backwards from one another Cut between two speci c bases in the sequence the example cuts between the G and the A Makes uneven cuts creates sticky ends Ex G AA39ITC C39ITA G Pick a restriction enzyme that cuts Plasmid once Cut end of insert gene with same restrictionstwice Use DNA Ligase to seal plasmid to insert together 0000 How to get plasmid into bacteria 0 Process called Transformation How to grow bacteria 0 ln liquid media in a shaking incubator o EColi are easy to take care of and grow quickly 0 Will express protein of interest How to purify the protein of interest 0 Many methods Eg Size Exclusion Chromatography Run the protein solution over a column of porous beads Small protein will get caught in the pores of beads They will therefore travel slowly Large proteins pass by unhindered Travel quickly SEPERATES PROTEINS BASED ON THEIR SIZE Find protein in appropriate fraction OOOOOOO Genetically engineered food Manipulation of the genes in plants and animals Herbicide Compounds that kill plants 0 Want an herbicide that is safe biodegradable and kill weeds but won39t kill our crop plants Glyphosate is an herbicide that is highly effective biodegradable with fairly low human toxicity 0 May be a carcinogen with quotoccupational exposurequot 0 Kills all plants 0 Herbicideresistant plants Solution put gene for glyphosate resistance in crop plants so they will not be killed by glyphosate 0 Problem millions of children worldwide suffer from vitamin A de ciency Illness blindness and or death Because diet is low of vitamin A Dependent on inexpensive staple foods like rice Rice has no vitamin A 0 Solution make rice that contains vitamin A Golden Rice 0 Add genes to the rice chromosome or enzymes that synthesize vitamin A 0 Genes from other plants and bacteria Genetically engineered salmon 0 Express a gene for a growth hormone frm a related sh species Not the same as human hormones Fish can grow faster and larger Recently approved for human consumption ALLGENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS UNDERGO RIGOROUS TESTING BEFORE MARKETING 0000 Population group of organisms of the same species living in same area at the same time Ecology 0 Study of how organisms related to one another and to the environment Population range 0 O 0 000 O Aka distribution Area throughout which a population exists Boundaries of population range can be not clear or not distinct or it is very distinct Can be very limited or very wide Can change over time With climate change By expansion of a population In nature organisms reproduce exponentially However limited resources constrains pop size Carrying capacity the maximum number of individuals in a population that an environment can support because organisms cannot reproduce limitless for in nite time we see looistic growth 0 O O Sigmoidal growth curve Rapid growth that slows near carrying capacity levels out K selected pooulations Reproduce slowly Gradually approach carrying capacity Rselected populations Reproduce rapidly Overshoot their carrying capacity often leads to death population reduction until carrying capacity is reached MOST POPULATIONS ARE AT OR NEAR THEIR CARRYING CAPACITY AT MOST TIMES


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