The Rise of Communism, Fascism and U.S. Isolation 1917-1939
The Rise of Communism, Fascism and U.S. Isolation 1917-1939 HIS113U
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS113U at Pace University taught by Barbara Blumberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see The American Experience: The United States and the World in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
I. Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia Nov 1917 a. Russians were i. Starving ii. Those drafted were sick and tired and fighting and losing b. Bolshevik's in 1917 to 1919 took over i. Told military they could leave and if they were stopped by commanding officers to just shoot them ii. Romanov family disposed of c. Everyone who was a capitalist country was wary of Socialist Russia i. Everyone was wary that socialists would like grab all the capitalist countries II. Italy and the Birth of Fascism a. Italians leave Versailles conference feeling cheating because they didn't get all they were promised. They also felt bad about the showing their country had made in the war. i. They lost too much to the Austrians. ii. They assumed that other countries didn't respect them because they were bad military wise b. 1918-1919, everyone felt cheated. c. Economy goes into a tailspin at the end of the war. i. The Depression ii. Huge unemployment iii. Lots of strikes iv. Discontent among the agricultural community 1. They didn't own land in Southern Italy 2. They wanted land d. Benito Mussolini i. Pre- WW1 was a Marxist 1. Was against the fucking war ii. Fascist = bundle of sticks from Roman word Fasci 1. To be powerful and militarize 2. AN EMPIRE 3. Could solve economic problems 4. International respect 5. Began to organize street gangs (para military) a. The Black Shirts i. Fought communists iii. Black Shirts are organized into a march on Rome. 1. They came out in thousands, they were not peaceful 2. Gave the government an hour or the black shirts would attack 3. As soon as possible every other political party was attacked 4. Il Duce was Mussolini’s nickname 5. If anyone goes against you, get rid of them 6. If democracy was a bad system communism was worse 7. Glorification of war and conquest. iv. There were people against Mussolini 1. Monarchy - king was won over 2. Old Military- won over with money 3. The Catholic Church- a deal was made with them in 1929 (lasted for as long as Mussolini held power ) v. Built up the military greatly 1. 1935 he had a first class army with the latest weapons 2. Had a fairly strong air force vi. 1935 1. He plans to conquer Ethiopia a. At the time of the start of the attack of Ethiopia i. Agricultural country with no industry really ii. Was ruled by King Haile Selassie I iii. No modern forces, and hardly an army 1. Mostly had hand weapons 2. Air force had one plane b. Italy demonstrates for the first time in Europe the readiness for the new dictators to use air power indiscriminately to terrorize civilians i. They flew over complete unarmed villages and bombed them ii. Ethiopia was a member of the League of Nations 1. King went before the League of Nations and begged them to brand Italy an aggressor and order them to get their forces out. If they didn't listen to impose heavy sanctions to stop the aggression against them. 2. None of the powers that belonged to the League of Nations wanted to deal with Mussolini especially not for a weak African Nation. They gave Italy a slap on the wrist c. Ethiopia ended up becoming a colony i. This was popular in Italy because they were promised an empire and this seemed like a start vii. Next target was Spain. i. Up until the beginning of the 1930's was a nation that in some ways was operating like it was in the high middle ages. ii. Strong Monarchy iii. All powerful Catholic Church 1. Economically powerful 2. Biggest land owner iv. Landless peasants that were forced to work on big estates which were owned by the aristocracy or by the Catholic Church v. No divorce in Spain vi. Had only just started industrializing and most workers were exploited viii. 1931 1. Revolution broke out in Spain, king and queen driven out of power 1. The start of a democratic republic began ix. 1936 1. Last free elections held for the next few decades a. Elections brought to power a government made of left wing parties b. Socialist c. Anarchist d. Communist i. The left leaning government tried to impose much needed reform ii. Went after the Catholic church and tried to enforce some land redistribution. iii. Tried to cut down on the power of the army. They had been super powerful as well 1. Both church and army dominated by the aristocracy x. The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 Fascists on the right attacked liberals July 12 Francisco Franco - general who was for a state of war Glory of spain to return with a cross and a sword Holy and class war Loyalists went against priests and nuns Terrorism was a controlled thing with Franco's men to terrorize the civilians Mussolini helped Franco sending troops, tanks and planes. Hitler also sent help to Franco A people's army was created by loyalists Stalin sent troops to Spain once Italy and Germany stopped neutrality More than 3,000 Americans ( Lincoln Brigade) go to fight for the Loyalists Didn't have enough supplies Spanish Civil War ends in 1939 and Franco takes power
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