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Note for HIST 2361 with Professor Holt at UH 2B


Note for HIST 2361 with Professor Holt at UH 2B

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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Houston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Week ZB Notes HIST 2361 Sumer pronounced ShOOmayor the oldest known civilization on the planet In 1836 Christian Thomson defined early human cultures based on technology 0 Stone Age people first began to chip stone into different tools 0 Bronze Age as time went on people figured out how to meld bronze 0 Iron Age once they discovered they could do this with iron and it was superior to bronze The Stone Agesfrom 25 million years ago 3000 BC 0 Old Stone Age Paleolithic lasted from 25 million years ago 10000 BC Primarily nomadic people just following the animals they hunted for food 0 Middle Stone Age Mesolithic lasted from 25 million years ago 10000 BC Primarily the same lifestyle as Old Stone Age 0 New Stone Age Neolithic lasted from 10000 3000 BC The communities that had previously been migratory became sedentary This happened because the Ice Age ended and they made advances in agriculture Over time near the end of the Neolithic period large cities began to emerge As they were able to produce more and more food people were able to branch off and have other occupations State amp Urban Revolution ca 3300 BC 0 Civilization people beginning to live in cities 0 History 0 Writing people began to be able to write records meaning this is the beginning of history Ancient writing systems from Mesopotamia and Egypt were lost and had to be reexamined and rediscovered One of these is called CUNEIFORM called this because it is wedge shaped It was written in Mesopotamia Hieroglyphics means priestly writing called this because it was written by priests 200 years ago nobody on Earth could read Cuneiform or Hieroglyphics so we had a lot of material but no way to read it Written communication can be 0 Pictographic picture writing a picture ofa lightbulb meaning 39lightbulb o Ideographic the writing down ofideas a picture ofa lightbulb meaning 39thinking 0 Phonetic syllabic alphabetic alphabetic means to convey a particular sound a picture of a bee meaning 39b like 39bee safe Syllabic means consonant and vowel Napoleon s Invasion of Egypt Napoleon not only took and army of soldiers he also brought an army of scholars so they could study the things they confiscated from the Egyptian civilization Rosetta 1799 When Napoleon set up camp in Rosetta he found a stone that had hieroglyphics a random teXt nobody could read called quotdemoticquot and Greek writing This stone is called Coronation Decree which reads Ptolemy V March 27 196 BC Napoleon s scholars were able to read the Greek part It said at the end quotInscribe this decree in hard stone using sacred native and Greek writingquot This is exciting because it meant that the part they could read in Greek was the same as what was written in the other languages Although the French lost it to the British it was still a Frenchman Jean Francois Champollion who deciphered hieroglyphics Jean Francois Champollion was encouraged by his brother to study the texts At 19 he was named the professor oflanguages at a university Champollion announced his decipherment in 182 2 He died 10 years later and never saw the actual stone We are now able to read hieroglyphics and demotic The Rosetta Stone became a prize of war 0 The Egyptians lost it to the French 0 The French lost it to the British 0 King George III gave it to the British museum in 1802 where it remains today Assumption Some signs must be phonetic represent sounds Any identifiable figure will always be the beginning of the teXt because hieroglyphics can go either way You also read it top to bottom then over one Cuneiformwas made from pressing wedge shaped forms into clay It is one script but can be used to write many languages Sumerian Akkadian Elamite etc After 3000 years 100 BC Cuneiform 39died and stopped being used so people stopped being able to read it A huge inscription was found on the side ofa mountain called the quotBehistun Inscription It was similar to the Rosetta Stone for deciphering Sir Henry Rawlinson a British army officer decided to copy the Behistun Inscription but had to be dangled by his feet from the side of the mountain in 1837 In 1839 he began to note repetitive signs in the Cuneiform He published his findings in 1846 From the Behistun teXt in Persian Babylonian and Elamite scholars have worked back to Sumerian and Akkadian


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