psychology lecture 7 notes
psychology lecture 7 notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana McGhee on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Alexa Tullett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro To Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE 7 (21116) SENSATION The process of detecting environmental stimuli or stimuli arising from the body PERCEPTION The process of interpreting sensory information VIBRATIONS IN SENSATION Dogs have lower visual acuity than humans Better ability to detect motion than humans Sense of smell is 100,000 times stronger than humans SENSORY THRESHOLDS Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of a stimulus that can be detected o Ex: humans can detect a candle flame from 30 miles away on a clear night Difference threshold: the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli Signal detection: the analysis of sensory and decision making processes in the detection of faint, uncertain stimuli o Ex: detecting cancer on a mammogram o Involves two components: actual presence vs. absence of stimuli observer’s belief about the presence vs. absence of the stimulus BOTTOM UP PROCESSING Bottomup processing: perception based on building simple input into more complex perceptions o Not influenced by expectations o Computers use mostly bottomup processing Topdown processing: a perceptual process in which memory and other cognitive processes are required for interpreting incoming sensory information o People use both bottomup and topdown processing o Influence by expectations ADAPTATION The tendency to pay less attention to a nonchanging source of stimulation THE PARTS OF THE EYE Cornea: the clear surface at the front of the eye that begins the process of directing light to the retina Pupil: an opening formed by the iris Iris: the brightly colored circular muscles surrounding the pupil of the eye Lens: the clear structure behind the pupil that bends light toward the retina Retina: layers of visual processing cells in the back of the eye Fovea: an area of the retina that is specialized for highly detailed vision THE EYE Rod: a photoreceptor in the retina that is specialized to detect dim light Cone: a photoreceptor in the retina that processes color OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY A theory of color vision that suggests we have a redgreen color channel and a blueyellow color channel in which activation of one color in each pair inhibits the other o Activity in red cells inhibits activity in green cells and vice versa o Activity in blue cells inhibits in yellow cells and vice versa o Fatiguing red cells increases activity in green cells and vice versa o Fatiguing blue cells increases activity in yellow cells and vice versa GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Proximity: we tend to group objects together when they are close to each other Similarity: we tend to group projects together when they are similar to each other Contuity: we tend to group objects together when they would form a smooth line if connected Closure: we tend to see a complete, unbroken shape even when there are gaps in the contours LECTURE 8 (11616) RECOGNIZING DEPTH Monocular cue: a depth cue that requires the use of only one eye o Linear perspective: parallel lines that appear to converge given the impression of depth Occlusion: if one object blocks our view of another, we infer the first object is closer (red and green blocks) Relative size: if we have reason that objects are the same size, we will infer that the one that looks bigger is closer Changes in clarity: if one object looks clearer than another, we will infer the clearer object is closer Some visual illusions take advantage of our use of depth cues to trick us about the relative size of objects Binocular cues: a depth cue that requires the use of both eyes o Retinal disparity: the difference between the images projected onto each eye, bigger disparities can tell us about the relative distance of object A and object B SOUND WAVES Sounds are louder when a wave has a higher amplitude Sounds are more highpitched when a wave has a higher frequency st o 1 red line: High amplitude, high frequency o Frequency = cycles/sound o 2 red line: Low amplitude, high frequency o 3 red line: Low amplitude, low frequency THE EAR Auditory canal: channels sound waves to the tympanic membrane Tympanic membrane: transmits vibrations from sound waves to the ossicles Ossicles: transmit vibrations from the tympanic member to the cochlea Cochlea: contains tiny hair cells embedded in the basilar membrane and surrounded by fluid Semicircular canals: part of the vestibular system AUDITORY PERCEPTION Perceiving pitch o High frequency noises cause maximal stimulation of hair cells at base of the basilar membrane o Low frequency noises cause maximal stimulation of hair cells at apex of basilar membrane High frequency o Base= narrow and tight o Hair cells o Basilar membrane Low frequency o Apex= wide and loose o Ossicle Sound localization o We localize sounds to the left and right by comparing the differences between the arrival times of the sounds of our two ears o If a sound gets to the left ear faster than to the right, we infer that the sound is coming from the left (and vice versa) SOMATOSENSATION The body senses, including a body position, touch, skin temperature, muscles, joins, ligaments, pain BODY POSITION Vestibular system: the system in the inner ear that provides info about body position and movement o The 3 semicircular canals are arranged at right angles so your brain can calculate the direction of movement (similar to the way you compute a vector in math) TOUCH Receptors in the skin respond to various types of touch stimuli including pressure, vibration, or stretch These receptors send signals to the brain, with some body parts being more highly represented than others Phantom limb syndrome: when a person who is missing a limb reports feeling as if that limb is being touched when other areas of the body are touched o Ex: feeling a missing hand when the face is touched o Cause: sensory neurons from other areas of the body that start to take over areas of the somatosensory system PAIN Free nerve endings that detect pain respond to various cues indicating tissue damage o Pain is not just an extreme form of touch Factors that increase sensation of pain o Chronic stress Factors that decrease the sensation of pain o Rubbing part of body that’s in pain o High levels of arousal o Placebos SMELL AND TASTE Smell and taste both involve the detection of molecules (or chemicals) Olfactory receptors: receptors in the nose that interact with airborne chemicals to begin the sensing of taste Taste receptors: receptors located on taste buds on the tongue that interact with ingested chemicals
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