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psychology lecture 7 notes

by: Adriana McGhee

psychology lecture 7 notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Adriana McGhee
GPA 3.0

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the lecture 7 notes we did over the week!
Intro To Psychology
Alexa Tullett
Class Notes
lecture 7, Psychology, py101, notes, 7
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana McGhee on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Alexa Tullett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro To Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE 7 (2­11­16) SENSATION  The process of detecting environmental stimuli or stimuli arising from the body PERCEPTION  The process of interpreting sensory information VIBRATIONS IN SENSATION  Dogs have lower visual acuity than humans  Better ability to detect motion than humans   Sense of smell is 100,000 times stronger than humans  SENSORY THRESHOLDS  Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of a stimulus that can be  detected o Ex: humans can detect a candle flame from 30 miles away on a  clear night  Difference threshold: the smallest detectable difference between two  stimuli   Signal detection: the analysis of sensory and decision making  processes in the detection of faint, uncertain stimuli o Ex: detecting cancer on a mammogram o Involves two components:   actual presence vs. absence of stimuli  observer’s belief about the presence vs. absence of the  stimulus BOTTOM UP PROCESSING   Bottom­up processing: perception based on building simple input into  more complex perceptions o Not influenced by expectations o Computers use mostly bottom­up processing  Top­down processing: a perceptual process in which memory and  other cognitive processes are required for interpreting incoming  sensory information o People use both bottom­up and top­down processing o Influence by expectations ADAPTATION  The tendency to pay less attention to a non­changing source of  stimulation THE PARTS OF THE EYE  Cornea: the clear surface at the front of the eye that begins the process of directing light to the retina  Pupil: an opening formed by the iris  Iris: the brightly colored circular muscles surrounding the pupil of the  eye   Lens: the clear structure behind the pupil that bends light toward the  retina  Retina: layers of visual processing cells in the back of the eye  Fovea: an area of the retina that is specialized for highly detailed  vision THE EYE  Rod: a photoreceptor in the retina that is specialized to detect dim  light   Cone: a photoreceptor in the retina that processes color  OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY  A theory of color vision that suggests we have a red­green color  channel and a blue­yellow color channel in which activation of one  color in each pair inhibits the other o Activity in red cells inhibits activity in green cells and vice  versa o Activity in blue cells inhibits in yellow cells and vice versa o Fatiguing red cells increases activity in green cells and vice  versa o Fatiguing blue cells increases activity in yellow cells and vice  versa GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY  Proximity: we tend to group objects together when they are close to  each other   Similarity: we tend to group projects together when they are similar to each other  Contuity: we tend to group objects together when they would form a  smooth line if connected  Closure: we tend to see a complete, unbroken shape even when there  are gaps in the contours  LECTURE 8 (1­16­16) RECOGNIZING DEPTH  Monocular cue: a depth cue that requires the use of only one eye  o Linear perspective: parallel lines that appear to converge given  the impression of depth   Occlusion: if one object blocks our view of another, we infer the first  object is closer (red and green blocks)  Relative size: if we have reason that objects are the same size, we will infer that the one that looks bigger is closer   Changes in clarity: if one object looks clearer than another, we will  infer the clearer object is closer  Some visual illusions take advantage of our use of depth cues to trick  us about the relative size of objects   Binocular cues: a depth cue that requires the use of both eyes o Retinal disparity: the difference between the images projected  onto each eye, bigger disparities can tell us about the relative  distance of object A and object B SOUND WAVES  Sounds are louder when a wave has a higher amplitude  Sounds are more high­pitched when a wave has a higher frequency st o 1  red line: High amplitude, high frequency o Frequency = cycles/sound o 2  red line: Low amplitude, high frequency o 3  red line: Low amplitude, low frequency THE EAR  Auditory canal: channels sound waves to the tympanic membrane  Tympanic membrane: transmits vibrations from sound waves to the  ossicles   Ossicles: transmit vibrations from the tympanic member to the  cochlea  Cochlea: contains tiny hair cells embedded in the basilar membrane  and surrounded by fluid  Semicircular canals: part of the vestibular system AUDITORY PERCEPTION  Perceiving pitch  o High frequency noises cause maximal stimulation of hair cells  at base of the basilar membrane o Low frequency noises cause maximal stimulation of hair cells  at apex of basilar membrane  High frequency o Base= narrow and tight o Hair cells o Basilar membrane   Low frequency o Apex= wide and loose o Ossicle  Sound localization o We localize sounds to the left and right by comparing the  differences between the arrival times of the sounds of our two  ears o If a sound gets to the left ear faster than to the right, we infer  that the sound is coming from the left (and vice versa) SOMATOSENSATION  The body senses, including a body position, touch, skin temperature,  muscles, joins, ligaments, pain BODY POSITION  Vestibular system: the system in the inner ear that provides info about  body position and movement o The 3 semicircular canals are arranged at right angles so your  brain can calculate the direction of movement (similar to the  way you compute a vector in math) TOUCH  Receptors in the skin respond to various types of touch stimuli  including pressure, vibration, or stretch  These receptors send signals to the brain, with some body parts being  more highly represented than others  Phantom limb syndrome: when a person who is missing a limb reports feeling as if that limb is being touched when other areas of the body  are touched o Ex: feeling a missing hand when the face is touched o Cause: sensory neurons from other areas of the body that start  to take over areas of the somatosensory system  PAIN  Free nerve endings that detect pain respond to various cues indicating  tissue damage o Pain is not just an extreme form of touch  Factors that increase sensation of pain o Chronic stress  Factors that decrease the sensation of pain o Rubbing part of body that’s in pain o High levels of arousal o Placebos SMELL AND TASTE  Smell and taste both involve the detection of molecules (or chemicals)  Olfactory receptors: receptors in the nose that interact with airborne  chemicals to begin the sensing of taste  Taste receptors: receptors located on taste buds on the tongue that  interact with ingested chemicals 


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