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AMH 2020 Week 7

by: Jocelyn

AMH 2020 Week 7 AMH 2020


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Imperialism and Progressivism
American History 1877-Present
Dr. Noll
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH 2020 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Noll in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see American History 1877-Present in History at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Monday, February 15, 2016 AMH 2020 Week 7 Imperialism Progressivism - What is it? Who supports it? - Working it out • State Local • • National - Yellow Journalism • 4/1898 Spanish American War (-Cuban War) - Treaty of Paris • Cuba becomes independent • United States acquires possessions that used to belong to Spain: US Colonies like Puerto Rico (Porto Rico), the island of Guam as a place that naval ships can reload, and the Philippines, giving us a window into Asia such as China - If we don't take the Philippines, Germany will - If we don't take over the Philippines, the “little brown brothers” won’t have our help and protection. The Philippines people feel betrayed by the US. - 1900-1905, there is a rebellion between the US and Philippines - Guantanamo Bay: another result of the Treaty of Paris - Platt Amendment: put in the Cuban constitution. If it appears that Cuba is not acting appropriating, the US can intervene. Cuba has become a colony although legally it is independent. Now, the US is a world power - Our goal is to make these people better 1 Monday, February 15, 2016 - 1904-1914, the US builds the Panama Canal, connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean Progressivism: 1900-1920 - Progressivism is an attempt to impose order through government action on a world made alien by urbanization and industrialization - While progressivism is taking place, we see the imposition of Jim Crow in the South • Laws imposed in the South to ensure that African Americans know “their place” in society • Legalized segregation: public transportation, education, and accommodations, and even separate bibles when swearing on oath • Systematic disfranchisement: blacks are being removed from being able to vote by circumventing the 15th amendment - Grandfather clause: if your grandfather didn’t vote, you can’t vote - Literacy Test: if you can’t read, you can’t vote - Poll Tax: if you can’t pay, you can’t vote - If those laws don't work, we can use extra legal violence to prevent them from voting How are they going to change this? - They are going to sue, but the Supreme Court is going to side with whites - 1896: Plessy v.s. Ferguson • Plessy sues Louisiana because he wants to test whether or not segregation is legal “separate but equal” - 1898: Williams v.s. Mississippi, the court rules for literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses which means that uneducated people such as blacks and poor whites are at a disadvantage • These laws were institutionalized to prevent blacks from having rights, but because there is no mention of race in the laws, it is “okay” - Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute 2 Monday, February 15, 2016 • He says that we need to teach people how to work in trades and how to be brick makers or carpenters because it will ultimately result in jobs and money - 1895: Atlanta Compromise • Washington says that we need to accept the fact that whites are in control • Why would he do that? - He doesn't want to die and he lives in Alabama, not known for it’s wonderful race relations His arch rival, WEB DuBois was born in Massachusetts as a free man and even • goes to Harvard as the first black man in America to get his PhD in History - He believes that Washington is someone who has given up and he believes that we should struggle. He writes a book called The Souls of Black Folk in 1903 - DuBois becomes a founder of the NAACP. He isn't really the right person for this movement though because he was born in Massachusetts and hasn't faced much adversity in his life in comparison to Washington. - 1905: there is a race riot in Atlanta. DuBois gets the hell out of the South. Easier said than done. - If blacks do exactly as Washington says, whites call blacks “uppity” • Washington gets an invitation to the White House by Roosevelt - White southerners go insane because it’s a black guy next to a white woman because we all know what’s gong to happen: lusting - Fall of 1901, President William McKinley (Republican) is reelected in 1900. New Vice President is Roosevelt is a national hero because of his participation in the Spanish American War. • William McKinley goes to Buffalo where he is assassinated by an anarchist Leon Czolzgosz • Roosevelt becomes the president and he is a progressive who wants to reform and regulate through government by controlling the practices of big business • Progressivism is about middle class • Progressivism is associated with educated women like Jane Addams • Progressivism is optimistic 3 Monday, February 15, 2016 • Progressivism is about college educated people to use their knowledge to help the greater good of society. Progressivism gets its messages across through a series of newspaper and magazine stores that expose the evils of American society - Muckrakers are writers of mass circulation who write stories about how bad business is treating Americans - Upton Sinclair, a socialist, writes The Jungle - Jacob Riis writes How the Other Half Lives - Ida Tarbell writes A History of the Standard Oil Company - Lincoln Stephens writes The Shame of the Cities - Muckrakers give exposure to problems but they don't give solutions 4 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Progressivism - Local: breaking the machine - State: goo-goo and reform - National: laws and reform tested in the Court Local: Political machines are corrupt, anti-democratic, problematic - Offering alternatives to the possibilities that political machines offer like settlement houses - Dealing with the issues of politics itself through reform • Professionalizing politics so that someone could run the city: A CITY MANAGER that has been educated though the university • As an appointed person, he is not subject to the whims of politics The City - 1900: Run by series of council members that are elected and there is five areas of the city, each council member representing one area. • For example, if there is an Italian ward, usually an Italian American would be in charge of them. • The wards allow people to elect from a narrow constituency • This is a fragmented political system. Progressives want people to be concerned about the whole. “Forget the pizza slice because they want the whole pie.” - 1910: Running the city at large, and now you have to be concerned about the needs of everyone. • Now, immigrants are less likely to be elected by the masses • While it seems reform at some level, it’s also anti-democratic in terms of immigrants’ situations 5 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 State: goo-goo and reform - Goo-goos are people that are concerned about having good government - Oregon • Pushes for secret ballot, allowing you to make a choice without telling you what to do which really breaks the power of the machine • “You do stuff for me and I do stuff for you” needs to end • They also develop primaries • They introduce recall. Recall allows people to initiate a process to try to get a person out of office before reelection takes place. • Referendum is also introduced. This means that people think that their legislature is not doing what they're supposed to do, doing stuff for the people. We can circumvent this by directly putting new things on the ballot. - Wisconsin • In Madison, there is the University of Wisconsin. They work hand in hand with legislatures to regulate business. • Close relationship between business and politics National: Laws and reform • 1901-1920: America becomes associated with the ideas of progressivism which permeates through both parties - Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) Republican - Woodrow Wilson(1912-1920) Democrat - Both of these guys are tied to expertise through credentials • Taft is between the two presidents who gets stuck in the bathtub and is known for inventing the 7th inning stretch in baseball (Republican) • Laws to regulate labor and corporations - Railroads, workplace safety, government inspection of food, drugs - Breaking up monopolies because they hurt people since by only having one price 6 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 - All these things are designed to give people a larger voice within American society which has been taken away from them by the corrupt practices of business • Business feels that they are being targeted unfairly. Why should the government tell me how much I should charge? • They are going to try the judicial branch - In 1905, New York passed a law regulating the number of hours that people can work per week in the bakery • Lochner v.s NY - They overturn the NY law because of sanctity of contract - A contract is a binding document, so technically the government can’t infringe on that. - This is a big victory for business - 3 years later in 1908, Muller v.s. Oregon • Laundries in Oregon have to work a set number of hours • The court says that the Oregon law is constitutional and reverses itself • Why has the court reversed itself? Women • Women are fragile and need to be protected. If we don't protect the women, their children won’t be protected. The case says that government can regulate business and that women are different from men in need of government help. - Some women say that this is a great thing but on the other hand, other women say that they’re just as strong as anybody else. - “The children belong to all of us.” - 1918, Hammer v.s. Dagenhart • The federal government passes a law that says federal government has no right to intervene. • Dissenting voice is Justice Holmes. Government does have the responsibility to regulate childhood labor. 7


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