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Abnormal Psychology Week 5

by: AJ Ponte

Abnormal Psychology Week 5 psych 2510

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94

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About this Document

These notes cover anxiety disorders, their factors and treatments. Also cover OCD, it's specific disorders, factors and treatments.
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Survey of Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 2510 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes Anxiety Disorders (with lifetime prevalence)  Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: 4-5%  Agoraphobia: 1.7%  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): 5-6%  Specific Phobias: 12%  Social Anxiety Disorder: 12-13% Anxiety  Anxiety- an unpleasant emotion characterized by a general sense of danger, dread, and physiological arousal  Anxiety and fear are normal responses to threatening or dangerous situations  Anxiety disorder- experiencing anxiety and fear in contexts that do not warrant such feelings  In the DSM, this category is reserved for those disorders in which anxiety is the MAIN symptom  Anxiety is comorbid with many other psychological disorders  29-30% overall lifetime prevalence for adults  Most common group of disorders, among all ages  Average onset: 11  More common in women (3 to 1)  Significant economic burden ($42.3 billion per year) Panic Attack  A panic attack is a discrete episode of acute terror in the absence of real danger  This is not a disorder on its own  Panic attacks can be unexpected or expected Panic Disorder  Discrete episodes of intense terror (panic attacks) in the absence of real danger, causing ongoing distress or impairment  Panic attacks are unexpected  Often comorbid with agoraphobia Agoraphobia  Intense fear or anxiety that occurs upon exposure to, or in anticipation of, a range of possible situations and leads to avoidance of those situations  Fear that escape might be difficult or help might not be available for panic sympotms Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes  Chronic, debilitating, pervasive worry, anxiety, or nervousness for at least 6 months  Anxiety is not limited to a specific situation  Causes distress and interferes with functioning Specific Phobia  An intense, persistent, and irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation  Four types: o Animal phobias o Natural environment phobias o Blood/injection/injury phobias o Situational phobias Social Anxiety Disorder  Marked fear or anxiety of social situations in which a person fears they will be scrutinized and evaluated negatively by others  3 most common disorder in the U.S.  May be narrow like public speaking phobia, or broad  More than 50% of people with social anxiety disorder have additional anxiety disorders Psychodynamic Factors  High levels of anxiety arise from disrupted or inadequate early parent-child relationships  Considered for multiple anxiety disorders, but often emphasized for GAD and social anxiety disorder Cognitive Factors  Maladaptive assumptions, which are irrational beliefs o Proposed by Albert Ellis o Dangerousness: GAD and Panic Disorder o Social competence: Social Anxiety Disorder  Meta-cognitions (metacognitive theory) o Developed by Adrian Wells, this theory suggests that people with GAD implicitly hold both positive and negative beliefs about worrying o Worry about the fact that they always worry  Intolerance of uncertainty o Certain individuals cannot tolerate the knowledge that negative events may occur, even if the possibility of occurrence is very small o GAD  Misinterpretations o People misinterpret their bodily sensations and believe it is, for example, a panic attack when it is really nothing Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes Behavioral Factors  Classical and operant condition o Associated with specific phobias o Classical example: Little Albert o Operant example: avoidance is negatively reinforced and therefore maintains phobias o Stimulus generalization: GAD  Modeling Biological Factors  Genetics may account for 30-40% of an individual’s vulnerability to developing an anxiety disorder, but difficult to rule out environment  GABA inactivity o Low activity of GABA has been linked to GAD o Benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Valium) provide relief form anxiety o GABA is a neurotransmitter that tells neurons to stop firing to subside the feeling of fear and anxiety  Impaired function in brain circuits/networks: o Anxiety: prefrontal, anterior cingulate and amygdala o Panic: amygdala, ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus, central gray matter, locus ceruleus Psychodynamic Treatments  Uncover roots of anxieties using basic psychodynamic techniques  Exploring how underlying emotional conflicts emerge in the form of resistance and transference  Specific goals with anxiety: o Foster greater self-acceptance o Decrease need for problematic defenses  Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) Biological Treatments  Benzodiazepines (valium, Xanax, Ativan) o Enhances functioning of GABA o Physically addictive and undesirable side effects o No long-term relief o Lethal with other depressants (alcohol)  Antidepressants (SSRIs)  Relaxation training Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes o A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations  Biofeedback o A technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily Cognitive Treatments  Changing maladaptive assumptions and misinterpretations o Beck and Ellis: Rational-emotive therapy  Helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder  Examining role of worrying o Often used for GAD  Biological challenge Behavioral Treatments  Exposure treatments o Love or imaginal exposure o For phobias, agoraphobia, social anxiety and panic  Systematic desensitization o Flooding or modeling  Virtual reality exposure  Social skills training Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments (CBT)  Exposure combined with cognitive treatments is most common  Goal-oriented, highly structured with emphasis on changing negative cognitions OCD Related disorders  Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (lifetime prevalence: 3%)  Body Dysmorphic Disorder  Hoarding Disorder  Trichotillomania  Excoriation Disorder (skin picking disorder) OCD  An anxiety disorder in which distressing and unwanted thoughts lead to compulsive rituals that significantly interfere with daily functioning Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes  Obsessions: recurrent, persistent, intrusive thoughts or impulses  Compulsions: irrational rituals that are repeated in an effort to control or neutralize the anxiety brought on by obsessional thoughts Body Dysmorphic Disorder  An overwhelming concern that some part of the body is ugly or misshapen  Flaw in appearance either imagined or very minor  Most commonly worry about skin, hair, nose, face  Doctor shopping  High risk for suicide Trichotillomania  Repetitive hair pulling that results in noticeable hair loss, individuals feel powerless to stop pulling  Shares common features and possibly genetic influences with OCD Psychodynamic Factors  Defense mechanisms of “Isolation of Affect” (thoughts occur without feelings) and “undoing” (one action used to cancel out another)  Underlying emotion may involve anger Behavioral Factors  Classical and operant condition Cognitive Factors  Attempts to neutralized intrusive thoughts  High standards and strong feelings of responsibility Biological Factors  Abnormal serotonin activity  Abnormal brain structures/functioning o Orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei: circuit or network that converts sensation into thoughts and actions. Structures/communication between parts may be overactive Treatment  Exposure and Response prevention o Behavioral treatment that interrupts compulsions and negative reinforcement o Cognitive techniques often added to replace inaccurate beliefs (CBT) o Antidepressants Week 5 Abnormal Psych Notes


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