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Week 5 Notes

by: Nausheen Zaman

Week 5 Notes BIO1500

Nausheen Zaman
GPA 3.3

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These are the notes for week 5! :)
Basic Life Diversity
Dr. William Bradford
Class Notes
Biology, BIO1500, Branford, WSU, Wayne State
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO1500 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. William Bradford in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Chapter 36: Plant Forms  ● Xylem​ ­ principal water­conducting tissues, also conducts dissolved minerals + inorganic  ions (nitrates/phosphates), supports plant body, includes fibers and parenchyma cells  ○ Tracheids ­ Dead cells that overlap one another and taper off at the end  ○ Vessels ­ Dead cylindrical cells arranged in continuous end­to­end format  ○ Lignified­ reinforced with lignin (primary structural tissue in plants)  ○ Vessel members < Tracheid members  ○ Primary Xylem ­ Formed from procambium in apical meristem (primary growth =  increase in height)  ○ Procambium ​­ undifferentiated cells in the apical meristem that later give rise to  specialized cells in plants during primary growth  ○ Secondary Xylem​ ­ Formed from vascular cambium (secondary growth =  increase in girth)  ○ Vascular cambium​ ­ A ring in plants that produces new xylem (interior) and  phloem (exterior). mostly common in woody eudicots  ○ Transpiratio ­ water vapor diffusion from plants  ● ***SEE SLIDE 4 IN THE FEB 12 LECTURE FOR XYLEM TISSUE COMPARISONS***  ● Phloem ­ Principal food­conducting tissues, hormone/amino acids/growth substance  transporter  ○ ANGIOSPERMS  ○ Sieve­tube members​ ­ responsible for the translocation of material across  phloem tissue, contain sieve plants, specialized and more efficient  ■ Variable pore size  ■ Comes with a companion cell​adjacent parenchyma cell, carries out  metabolic functions that allows sieve member to function, have many  plasmodesmata)  ● Non­flowering plants ­ albuminous cells instead of companion cells  ○ Sieve plate ­ perforated ‘plates’ between two sieve tubes in angiosperm  vascular plants  ■ Larger pores than sieve areas  ○ FERNS/GYMNOSPERMS  ○ Sieve cell ­ primitive sieve element with narrow pores and no sieve plate  ■ Uniform pore size  ○ Sieve areas­ parts of the sieve tube wall that are clustered pores responsible for  cytoplasmic connections between different cells. Highly concentrated in areas  where they are near sieve plates  ■ Both are living cells  ■ Contain pore clusters  ■ Lack nuclei at maturity  ○ ***SEE SLIDE 11 OF FEB 12 LECTURE FOR SUMMARY***  ● Roots  ○ NOTE! These boundaries are not clearly defined, rather they are a group of  common traits that are expressed as a stage  ○ Simpler pattern of organization and development than stems  ○ Root Cap   ■ Stems don’t have an equivalent structure  ■ Containscolumella (inner) an root capouter/lateral) cells that are  continuously formed by the apical meristem  ● Protects delicate tissues in the meristem (root cap) + gravitational  perception (columella)  ■ Golgi bodies in cells secrete slimy secretion that lubricates the root in  order for it to have an easier time growing through the soil  ■ Columella:  ● ER in periphery (not the center!)  ● Nucleus located at the top/middle of cell  ● No large vacuoles for water  ● Contain​amyloplasts​(organelles that help in directing cell  towards gravitational pull by gathering towards the side facing the  gravity)  ○ Zone of Cell Division  ■ Comes from rapid divisions in root apical meristem  ■ Meristem daughter cells subdivide into three main meristems  ■ Genetic differentiation begins here (anatomical/morphological patterning  = zone of maturation)  ● Protoderm  ● Procambium  ● Ground meristem  ■ Werewolf (WER) gene ­ suppresses root hair development  ● WER expressed = no root hair in that area  ● WER not expressed = normal root hair development  ■ Scarecrow (SCR) gene ­ differentiation between endodermis and adjacent  ground cell layer  ● SCR expressed = asymmetrical division between endodermal  cells and ground cells  ● SCR not expressed = ground cells and endodermal cells grow  together in one layer  ● Ground meristem cells only express this gene  ○ Zone of Elongation  ■ Where cells grow 3x longer than wide (width only increases slightly)  ■ Nothing changes above this zone  ■ Mature parts of the root remain stationary for the rest of the plants life  except for increase in girth  ○ Zone of Maturation  ■ Anatomical/morphological differentiation occurs here  ■ Root surface cell = epidermal cells (very thin cuticle with root  hair/non­hair cells)  ■ Parenchyma cells​= ground meristem → cortex (part of stem that  functions in food storage and later becomes part of the endodermis)  ■ Endodermal tissue= walls filled with suberin (a fatty substance that  repels water)  ■ Casparian strip= waterproof corky bands around endodermis that  serve as a water and mineral transporter between the xylem and  endodermis  ● SCR mutants lack casparian strips  ■ Plasma membranes control what pass through the cells  ■ Stel = all interior tissues past endodermis  ■ Pericycle= cylinder of parenchyma cells next to/interior of endodermis  ● Gives rise to lateral roots and vascular/cork cambium (eudicots)  ● Anatomy of a Woody Stem   ○ ***SEE SLIDES 26­27 IN FEB 12 SLIDES FOR DIAGRAMS AND  COMPARISONS***  ● Differentiation of Plant Tissues    ● Modified Roots  ○ Derived from true roots  ○ Taproot system​ ­ single large root with little branching roots  ○ Fibrous system​ ­ many small roots of the same size  ○ Adventitious root ­ roots that grow in places other than the plant’s original root  ○ Prop roots ­ ‘props’ the plant up  ○ Aerial root​­ Obtains water from air (Aerial = air)  ○ Pneumatophores  ​­ Oxygen uptake (pneumo = oxygen­related/lungs)  ○ Contractile root­ pull plant deeper into soil (‘contracts’ plant into the soil)  ○ Parasitic root ­ penetrates host plants (parasites = leeches off host. No pun  intended)  ○ Food storage roots ­ stores carbs  ○ Water storage roots­ weight 50kg (about 110 pounds!) or more   ○ Buttress roots​ ­ Provide considerable stability (think of the medieval European  churches with the flying buttresses)  Check out this link for vocab! → 


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