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BZ 101 one week of notes

by: AlliSlaten

BZ 101 one week of notes BZ 101

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This is one week- chapters 11 and 12
Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2)
Karen M Raines
Class Notes
BZ 101
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
BZ 101 Notes Chapter 1 notes to come next week after I get my textbook Chapter 2- Organic Molecules - 2.4- Organic Molecules - Lipid= fat - Organic molecules always contain carbon and hydrogen atoms • Carbon atoms often share electrons with other carbon atoms forming long hydrocarbon chains • Attached to the carbon chains are functional groups • functional group- a group of atoms that is attached to a molecule that reacts/ behaves in a predictable way and contains certain characteristics - Macromolecules contain many molecules joined together • Monomers- simple organic molecules that exist individually - ex. monosaccharide, fatty acids, amino acid, nucleotide • Polymers- large organic molecules formed by combining monomers - ex. carbohydrate, lipid, protein, nucleic acid - Cells have common mechanism for joining monomers and degrading polymers • Dehydration Reaction- an -OH and -H are removed as a water molecule • Hydrolysis(water splitting) Reaction- the components of water are added, the chemical bond that is holding the monomers together is split by adding water. This includes chemical breakdowns in the small intestine. - 2.5- Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates- Function for quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Play a structural role in plants, bacteria, and arthropods - On cell surfaces are involved in cell to cell recognition (white blood cells use this to recognize whether or not a cell is supposed to be in the body) - Simple Carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides • ex.glucose, galactose, and fructose - Disaccharides (simple sugars) contain two monosaccharides. • ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose - Polysaccharides- long polymers that contain many glucose subunits • Starch- the storage form of glucose in plants • Glycogen- the storage form of glucose in animals (we store glycogen in our muscles and liver) • Cellulose- found in the cell walls of plants - 2.6- Lipids - Lipids- contain more energy per gram than other biological molecules and we have the ability to store lipids long term • Function as energy storage molecules • Insulate against heat loss • form protective cushions around major organs Form membranes • • Chemical messengers - Lipids are diverse in structure and function • One common characteristic is that they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic) - Types of lipids include fats and oils, phospholipids, and steroids - A fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that ends with the acidic group • ex. COOH - Saturated fatty acids- have no double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms - Unsaturated fatty acids- have 1 or more double bonds between carbon atoms (not all the carbon atoms are completely surrounded by hydrogen atoms) - Trans fat means that the molecule is switched making it less healthy - Emulsification- fat droplets disperse in water that were clumped together. Bile(we produce this) emulsifies fats in our small intestine. • ex. soap and egg whites - Phospholipids- Comprised of 2 fatty acids + a phosphate group + glycerol • they are major components of cells membranes • They spontaneously form a bilayer in which the hydrophilic heads face outward toward watery solutions and the fails form the hydrophobic interior. The polar head faces the outside meaning that it is hydrophilic water soluble and the tails are non polar or hydrophobic that means that they are not water soluble. - Steroids- all have a backbone of four fused carbon rings • ex. cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen - 2.7- Proteins - Proteins- are polymers composed of amino acid monomers. Generally are very long and contain lots and lots of monomers - Proteins perform many functions: • Structural- Keratin and collagen • Enzymes Hormones- Insulin • • Transport molecules- Hemoglobin (found in red blood cells and transport oxygen) • Antibodies - Amino acid- contains an amino group (-HN2) an acidic group (-COOH) and and R group also known as the rest of the molecule (varies) • 20 exist in nature - Peptides- can be used interchangeably with protein and a peptide bond joins two amino acids - Polypeptide- a single chain of amino acids - Levels of protein organization: • The structure of the protein has at least 3 levels of organization (some have 4) • ex. Hemoglobin- protein that transfers oxygen throughout the blood - The final shape of a protein is very important to its function Denatured- A protein loses structure and function due to hear or pH. Generally is • permanent - Polypeptide- a chain of amino acids • 2 or more polypeptides - Misfolded proteins- interferes with the function of the protein and can cause things like Alzheimer's - 2.8 Nucleic Acids - DNA- (deoxyribonucleic acid) stores genetic information in the cell and in the organism, 4 bases - RNA- (ribonucleic acid), 4 bases - Both are polymers of nucleotides - Components of a nucleotide • Phosphate • Pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) • Nitrogen- containing base (1 of 5) - DNA- • sugar (deoxyribose), bases(adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine), • • strands (double stranded with base pairing), • Helix (yes) - RNA- • sugar is ribose • bases are adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine • strands are single • helix no - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)=adenine + ribose (adenosine) + 3 phosphate groups • high energy molecule (energy currency of the cell) • undergoes hydrolysis and energy is releases • enzymes are proteins which are crucial for hydrolysis - Last two phosphate bonds are unstable and are easily broken therefore they release energy - Hydrolization forms ADP (adenosine diphosphate) - ATP can be rebuilt (add P to ADP to make ATP) - Question: A _______ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Dehydration - Question: The primary function of a carbohydrate is: • Answer: A quick fuel and short- term energy storage - Question: A ____ reaction occurs when two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule. • Answer: Steroids, lipid molecules, and hormones - Question: Proteins are polymers of? • Answer: Amino Acid - Question: DNA is a____? • Answer: Nucleic Acid Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function - 3.1 - The cell - The cell marks the boundary between the nonliving and the living - The cell is the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life - Cell theory - All organism are composed of one or more cells - Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organism - All cells come only from other cells - Surface area/volume ratio - The amount of surface area affects the ability to get materials in and out of a cell - As cells increase in volume, the proportionate amount of surface area decreases - All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane - The material inside of a cell is the cytoplasm - The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell - 3.2 Prokaryotic Cells - Lack a membrane- bounded nucleus - Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus - Humans are Eukaryotic organisms - 3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya - Generally unicellular • may be single, strings, or clusters - Not all bacteria cause disease some are beneficial • - Question: Prokaryotic cells lack… • Answer :A true nuclei - Question: The ____ is the smallest independent unit of life • Answer: Cell - Question: What factor limits cell size • Answer: Surface area/ volume ratio - 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells - Are structurally complex - Have a nucleus - Possess membrane- bounded organelles - Animals, plants, fungi, and protists - Some Eukaryotic cells have cell walls - - Parts of the cell - The Nucleus - Contains chromatin • DNA and associated proteins - Nucleolus • Where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made - Nuclear Envelope • Nuclear pores - Ribosomes • Site of protein synthesis two subunits (large and small) • • Subunits consist of rRNA and protein molecules • found attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free in cytoplasm - Endomembrane System • Consists of the nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and several vesicles(tiny membranous sacs) • Essentially the transportation and product- processing section of the cell • compartmentalizes cell - Endoplasmic Reticulum - Rough ER • Studded with ribosomes Processing and modification of proteins • - Smooth ER • No Ribosomes • Synthesiszes phospholipids • various other functions • Liver cells have a lot of these - Golgi Apparatus • “post office” of the cell collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials such as proteins and lipids • • Proteins made RER have tags that serve as “zip codes” to direct Golgi apparatus where to send them - Lysosomes • Produced by Golgli Apparatus • Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes • “Garbage disposals” of the cell • Break down unwanted, foreign substances or worn- out parts of cells • Important during development • Diseases? - Tay-Sachs(lysosomal storage disease) - Energy related Organelles - Life is possible only because of a constant input of energy - Chloroplasts (plants only) and mitochondria are the 2 eukaryotic membranous organelles that specialize in converting energy to a form the cell can use - Photosynthesis - Solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen - - Only plants, algae, and cyanobacteria - Solar energy is the ultimate source of energy for most cells - Cellular Respiration - carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy - All organism convert chemical energy into ATP - ATP used for all energy requiring processes in cells - Mitochondria • found in all eukaryotic cells(including plants and algae) • site of cellular respiration • Contain their own DNA • All mitochondria come from your mother • Diseases? yes - 3.4 and 3.5 - The Cytoskeleton • Maintain the cell shape • Assists in movement of cell and organelles • Dynamic- assemble and disassemble • Three types of protein components - Microfilaments (Actin filaments) - Inermideiate Filaments - Microtubules - Centrioles • found in centrosomes of animal cells • Involved in the process of microtubule assembly and disassembly • form the mitotic spindle during cell division - Cilia and Flagella Hairlike projections that aid in cell movement • • In eukaryotic cells, cilia are much shorter than flagella • Both are membrane- bound cylinders - 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules because of the 9 pairs of microtubules that surround a single pair of microtubules - Question- ribosomes are the sites of____ - Answer- protein synthesis - Question- the ____is often referred to as the “post office” of the cell because it collects, modifies and packages and sorts molecules - Answer- Golgi - Question- which organelle do we associate with ATP synthesis - Answer- Mitochondrion - Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell - First cells were prokaryotes - Evidence suggests archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes - Evolved in stages - Endosymbiotic theory- Mitochondria and chloroplasts are derive from prokaryotes that were taken up by a much larger cell - Supporting evidence - Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in size and in structure - Both organelles are bounded by a double membrane- the outer membrane may be derived from the engulfing vesicle, and the inner one may be derived from the plasma membrane of the original prokaryote - Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a limited amount of genetic material and divide by splitting (their DNA is a circular loop like that of prokaryotes) - Although most of the proteins within mitochondria and chloroplasts are now produced by the eukaryotic host, they do have their own ribosomes and they do produce some proteins (their ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes) - The RNA (ribonucleic acid) base sequence of the ribosomes in chloroplasts and mitochondria also suggests a prokaryotic origin of these organelles - 4.1 Plasma Membrane Structure and Function - Plasma Membrane- Regulates the entrance and exit of molecules into and out of the cell • Consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins - 5 Membrane Protein functions - 1. Channel protein allows a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane freely. A mucus blocking this pathway causes cystic fibrosis - 2. Carrier proteins selectively interact with specific molecules or ions so that it can cross the plasma membrane. The family of GULT carriers transfer glucose in and out of cell types. Different carries respond differently to different levels of glucose. - 3. MHC (major histocompatibility complex) meaning glycoproteins are different for each person, making transplants difficult. Cells with foreign MHC are attacked by white blood cells which are responsible for immunity - 4. Receptor proteins are shaped in a certain way so that certain molecules can bond with it. This causes some forms of dwarfism because they don’t produce enough growth hormone. - 5. Enzymatic protein catalyzes are a specific reaction. The membrane protein (adenylate cyclase) is involved in ATP metabolism. Cholera releases a toxin that interferes with this reaction eventually causing severe diarrhea. - 4.2 Permeability of the Plasma Membrane - Differentially permeable - Factors that determine how a substance may be transported across a plasma membrane: • Size • Nature of molecule- polarity, change • Concertino gradient - Concentration gradient - Going “down” a concentration gradient • From an area of higher to lower concentration - Going “up” a concentration gradient • From an area of lower to higher concentration, requires input of energy - Some molecules freely cross membrane • Water, small, non-charged molecules - Other molecules cannot- use.. • Channel proteins, carrier proteins, vesicles (endocytosis or exocytosis) - Diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of higher to lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) - Solution contains a solute (solid) and a solvent (liquid) - Once the solute and solvent are evenly distributed, their molecules continue to move about, but there is no net movement of either one in any direction - Gases can diffuse through a membrane - Oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit this way - Osmosis- diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane. - Diffusion always occurs from higher to lower concentration - Osmotic pressure is the pressure that develops in a system due to osmosis • The greater the possible osmotic pressure, the more likely it is that the water will diffuse in that direction - Tonicity- the osmotic pressure or tension of a solution - Isotonic- no net gain or loss of water - Hypotonic- cell loses water—> crenation - Transport by carrier proteins - Carrier proteins are specific • Combine with a molecule or ion to be transported across the membrane - Carrier proteins are required for facilitated transport and active transport - Facilitated Transport • Small molecules that are not lipid- soluble • Molecules follow the concentration gradient • Energy is not required - Active Transport Molecules combine with carrier proteins (often called pumps) • • Molecules move against the concentration gradient (entering or leaving the cell) • Energy is required - Vesicle Formation - Membrane assisted transport - Transport of macromolecules - Requires energy - Keeps the macromolecule contained - Exocytosis (exit out of the cell) • Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane as secretion occurs • Membrane of vesicle becomes part of plasma membrane • Cells of particular organs are specialized to produce and export molecules - ex. pancreatic cells release insulin when blood sugar rises - Endocytosis (enter into the cell) - Cells take in substance by vesicle formation - Phagocytosis- large, particulate matter - Pinocytosis- liquids and small particles dissolved in liquid - Receptor Mediated Endocytosis- a type of pinocytosis that involves a coated pit Chapter 1: - 1.1 The Characteristics of Life - Cell- smallest unit of life, and some organisms are single celled - Levels of biological organization (smallest to largest) • Atom- smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons • Molecule- Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements • Cell- the structural and functional unit of all living things • Tissue- a group of cells with a common structure and function • Organ- composed of tissues functioning together or a specific task • Organ system- composed of several organs working together • Organism- An individual, complex individuals contain organ systems • Population- Organisms of the same species in a particular area • Community- interacting populations in a particular area • Ecosystem- a community plus the physical environment Biosphere- Regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living • things s - Organisms require energy in order to be productive. This energy can from solar, water, food, or carbon dioxide - The information needed to reproduce is encoded in our genes which are in each individual’s DNA - 1.2 and 1.3 The classification of organisms - Domain- largest classification category - Domain Eukarya - Protista- complex single cell and some multicellular • ex. slime mold, euglenoid - Fungi- some unicellular, most multicellular filamentous forms with specialized complex cells • ex. black bread mold, mushroom, yeast - Plantae- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. moss, fern, pine tree - Animalla- multicellular form with specialized complex cells • ex. sea star, finch, human - Extinction- permanent loss of a species - 1.4 The process of Science - Biology- the scientific study of life. Biologist can be found almost anywhere studying life forms - Hypothesis- a prediction or explanation for a natural event in which can be studied to be true or false using deductive reasoning (if, then) - Experimental variable- independent variable or the variable you control - Responding variable- dependent variable or the variable that is the outcome - Chapter 11: Human Organization - A tissue is composed of similarly specialized cells that perform a common function in the body - Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body: • Epithelial: covers body surfaces and lines cavities • Connective: supports and binds body parts • Muscular: moves the body and its parts • Nervous: receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses - Epithelial Tissue • Consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer • Numerous functions - Protection - Secretion (glands) - - Absorption Excretion - Filtration - Connective Tissue • Binds organs together • Provides support and protection • Fills spaces • Produces blood cells • Stores fat - Components of Connective Tissue • Matrix: noncellular material - solid, semisolid, or liquid - A non-fluid matrix will have fibers: collagen, elastic, reticular • Cells: various types - Blood • Unlike other types of connective tissue in that the matrix (i.e., plasma) is not made by the cells Functions: • Transports • • Regulates • Protects - Muscular Tissue - Cells are called muscle fibers - Muscles fibers contain actin and myosin filaments • Interaction accounts for movements - Types of Muscle Tissues - Skeletal - Smooth (visceral) - Cardiac - Nervous Tissue - Neurons (nerve cells) - Conduct impulses • Sensory input, integration, motor output - Neuron structure • Dendrites Cell body • - • Axon Nervous Tissue • Neuroglia • Support and nourish neurons • Four types in the brain - Microglia: engulf bacterial and cellular debris - Astrocytes: provide nutrients - Oligodendrocytes: form myelin sheaths - Ependymal cells: line fluid-filled spaces of brain and spinal cord Cavities: - • Ventral Cavity or Coelom divided into: • Thoracic cavity – Lungs and heart - Abdominal cavity • Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm • Stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and most of the small and large intestine - Pelvic cavity • Bladder, rectum, internal reproductive organs - Dorsal Cavity • Cranial cavity – Brain • Vertebral canal - Spinal cord - Body Membranes: • Line cavities and the internal spaces of organs and tubes that open to the outside - Mucous Membranes • Line tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems • Epithelium overlies loose fibrous connective tissue • Goblet cells produce mucus - Protective function - Body Membranes - Serous Membranes • Line thoracic and abdominal cavities • Epithelium and loose fibrous connective tissue • Secrete watery fluid for lubrication • Includes: pleurae, pericardium, peritoneum, mesentery - Body Membranes: - Synovial membranes • Loose connective tissue • Line freely movable joints • Secrete synovial fluid - Meninges • Line the dorsal cavity • Protect brain and spinal cord • Connective tissue - The Integumentary System - Skin • Epidermis & Dermis - Accessory organs Hair follicles • • Nails • Sweat glands • Oil glands - Functions of the integumentary system • Protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss • Helps to regulate body temperature • Synthesizes vitamin D • Contains sensory receptors – awareness of surroundings • All systems of the body contribute to homeostasis • Maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment by an organism, or even by a single cell Even if external conditions change dramatically, internal conditions stay within a narrow • range • The internal state of the body is often described as one of dynamic equilibrium - Negative Feedback - Primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point • Two components (minimum) - A sensor - A control center - Positive Feedback • A change brings about a greater change in the same direction • Involved in processes with a definite cut off point • Examples - Blood clotting-activated platelets initiate clotting process and release chemicals that stimulate further clotting - Child birth- contractions get stronger until birth occurs • Disease • Abnormality in the body’s normal processes that significantly impairs homeostasis. • Local disease • Systemic disease • Acute disease • Chronic disease Chapter 12: Cardiovascular system - Three Types of Blood Vessels: • Arteries: carry blood away from the heart • Capillaries: permit exchange of materials - with tissues - Veins: carry blood toward the heart - Plasma- Liquid portion of the blood - Formed Elements - Red blood cells – White blood cells - Platelets - Blood has: • Transport functions • Regulatory functions • Protective functions - Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) When mature lack a nucleus • • Shape is biconcave disc • Contain hemoglobin • Binds to oxygen • Last around 120 days • Destroyed in the liver and spleen • Iron is mostly recycled – Heme portion degraded – bile pigments - Erythropoietin- Hormone produced by kidneys • Speeds up maturation of red blood cells in bone marrow - White Blood Cells (Leukocytes): • • Usually larger than red blood cells • Nucleated Role is to fight infection and provide • • immunity - The Platelets (thrombocytes): • Fragmented megakaryocytes • Involved in the process of clotting or coagulation - Myocardium- Major portion of the heart • Consists mainly of cardiac muscle - Pericardium- Serous membrane that surrounds the heart - Endocardium- Lines the inner surface of the heart • Membrane consisting of connective tissue and endotheliumThe Pulmonary Circuit • Blood from the body collects in the right - atrium - Right Atrium→ Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Arteries→ Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Pulmonary Veins → Left atrium → - The Systemic Circuit • Blood leaves the left ventricle, travels • through the body and is returned to the heart • Left Ventricle->Aorta → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Vena cava->Right Atrium - Coronary arteries • Serve the heart muscle itself • CAs are the first • branches off the aorta Cardiac veins empty into right atrium • • Portal system begins and ends in capillaries - Hepatic portal system - Atherosclerosis- An accumulation of plaque (soft masses of fat and cholesterol) beneath inner lining of arteries • Interferes with blood flow • Plaques can cause clots to form • A stationary clot is a thrombus • If clot breaks loose it becomes an embolus • Angina pectoris - Chest pain from partially blocked coronary artery • Myocardial infarction (heart attack) Heart attack occurs when vessel becomes completely blocked • • A portion of the heart muscle deprived of oxygen – Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Stroke • Cerebrovascular accident • Arteriole in the brain bursts or is blocked by an embolus • Lack of oxygen to brain can cause paralysis or death • Warning signs: HEART.ORG - Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Affects about 20% of all Americans • Usually caused by a narrowing of the arteries • Age, gender, and lifestyle can influence blood pressure - Obesity – Smoking – High dietary salt intake • Medications can be used to treat this disease - Treatments: Noninvasive - • Medications • Invasive - Angioplasty - Coronary Bypass Operation – Heart Transplants and Artificial Hearts


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