Social Psychology Notes Weeks 4 AND 5
Social Psychology Notes Weeks 4 AND 5 PSYC 2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oya Zaimoglu on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Dodge, T in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Social Psychology Week 4 The Self Background Self or Self-concept: individual’s beliefs about his/her personal attributes. Four components of the self: Self-knowledge, self-control, impression management, self-esteem. 1. Self-Knowledge Introspection: Reflect on the self; values, beliefs etc. The interesting thing is that there are many other ways of learning about the self. You should know yourself better than others, but this sometimes leads to errors (When we are asked how we feel sometimes it’s difficult to explain). Reasons based attitude change: result of thinking about why you feel the way you do. -verbalize what is easy to describe or what comes to mind. -may lead to a temporary shift in how you feel. -over time the original attitude returns. Related theories Self-Awareness Theory: We become more aware of our internal standard; the self becomes salient (i.e. retail stores have mirrors which make it less likely that you’ll steal). Self-Perception Theory: Feelings are ambiguous or uncertain. We make inferences about what our behavior means, and from that our attitude is formed. -Ambiguity -Concerned with whether feelings affect behavior or not (Mr. Blue running & getting paid example) Implications for Motivation: Intrinsic: doing it because you love it Extrinsic: external rewards shape your behavior Both are qualitative differences in types of motivation. External motivation can turn into internal motivation- secondary gain; when people are initially extrinsically motivated which then turns into internal i.e. your child isn’t into art, but you expose her to it with a reward and she continues =>intrinsic. *Extrinsic can lead to long lasting behavior. Over-Justification Effect: tendency for individuals to view their behavior as caused by extrinsic reasons leading to an undermining of intrinsic motivation. Administration of rewards cannot always be problematic (task-contingent and performance contingent). How do rewards affect the following? -Autonomy (choice) -Competence (feelings of how capable you are) -Relatedness (relationships with others) *Task-contingent rewards are more likely to undermine extrinsic motivation than performance-contingent. Testing Over-Justification: Problem: Getting kids to eat veggies Practically appealing solution: reward kids for eating desired foods but… -have long term effects on liking and consumption (over- justification/IM). -particularly when rewards are removed Past work showed inconsistent results using rewards -outcome 2 -type of reward -level of initial liking Methods: 472 kids in kindergarten and 1st grade. Four Conditions: ETR-reward EP-praise EA-exposure alone (to make it familiar-will increase liking alone) C-control Intervention period lasted 11 days (days 3-15), outcomes assessed at -post intervention -1-month later -3-months later Consumption: during intervention, increases in consumption for three (largest for ETR) sustained for EP and ETR. Conclusions: Administering external rewards, tangible or intangible, did not have an adverse effect on liking or consumption (even after the rewards were removed). Self-Perception and Motivation Conclusions Rewards may undermine intrinsic motivation -when there is enjoyment to destroy (disrupt) -task contingent (controlling) Less likely to undermine intrinsic motivation -behaviors do not enjoy -performance contingent (increases competence) 3 Self-Observation: self-perception, social information (social comparison theory) 4
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