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World History 1020, Week Four Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Four Notes HIST 1020 - 004

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About this Document

This goes over the Opium Wars in Qing China, transformations in other parts of the world during the nineteenth century, emerging ideas and cultures in Europe, and the second wave of major revolutions.
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
Qing, Opium Wars, Ghost Dance, Wahhabism, Mfecane, Congress of Vienna, 1848 French Revolution, World History
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
February  12-­‐19,  Week  Four   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  II     The  Opium  War  and  the  Opening  of  China’s  Qing  Empire  (WTWA  557-­‐560)   Prophecy  and  Rebellion  in  Qing  China  (WTWA  579-­‐81)     I. China:  the  Qing  state  under  siege  from  within  and  without   a. Rot  from  within:  Qing  Dynasty  Background   -­‐  The  Qing  Dynasty  was  one  of  the  more  stable  dynasties  in  Chinese  history   -­‐  The  Qing  adopted  a  lot  of  the  ideas  from  the  dynasty  that  they  took  over  (Ming)   including  Confucianism   -­‐  Because  of  their  respect  for  tradition,  the  Qing  gained  support  of  the  Scholar   Gentry  founded  under  the  Ming   -­‐  Gained  territory  over  Taiwan  and  Tibet   -­‐  They  were  successful  in  settling  lands  because  of  the  introduction  of  crops  from   the  Americas  like  corn  and  sweet  potato   -­‐  Comprador:  new  class  of  merchants  prominent  in  silk  trade   -­‐  Much  of  China  is  hit  by  natural  disasters  making  them  extremely  vulnerable   -­‐  It  caused  many  empires  to  fall;  the  Qing  preserved  but  at  an  extremely  high  cost   -­‐  It  is  often  wondered  if  China  had  been  involved  in  the  Industrial  Revolution  if  they   would  be  as  weak  when  Great  Britain  took  over   b. “Barbarians”  at  the  gates:  the  opium  trade   -­‐  People  outside  of  the  Wall  were  considered  barbarians  (mainly  Europeans)   -­‐  Because  of  Great  Britain’s  control  over  China,  there  was  an  explosion  in  the   importation  of  opium  and  widespread  addiction   -­‐  Opium  causes  you  to  not  care  about  anything,  thereby  it  took  China  out  of  the  mix   of  the  world,  which  had  a  huge  impact  on  culture  and  economy   c. Lin  Zexu,  Great  Britain  and  the  Opium  Wars  (1839-­‐1842)   -­‐  The  British  navy  bombards  the  Chinese  coast  in  a  victorious  attempt  to  protect   British  merchants   -­‐  The  Treaty  of  Nanjing     -­‐  There  were  5  giant  ports,  most  notably,  Hong  Kong,  where  the  British  took  over  for   an  extensive  period  of  time   -­‐  China  began  opening  their  ports  to  Europeans   -­‐  By  the  1890s,  there  were  90  different  Chinese  ports  open  to  merchants  through   China’s  “open  door”  policy   d. The  Taiping  Rebellion  (1850-­‐1864)   1. Role  of  Hong  Xiuquan   -­‐  The  Taiping  Rebellion  was  not  widely  known  in  America  because  the  Civil  War  was   in  the  same  general  time  frame   -­‐  The  rebellion  was  formed  by  people  with  millenarian  (or  egalitarian)  views   -­‐  According  to  history,  the  most  important  events  are  the  ones  with  the  most   casualties,  but  while  the  Civil  War  accumulated  600,000  causalities,  the  Taiping   Rebellion  accumulated  30  million   -­‐  The  influence  of  British  protestant  missionaries  influenced  Hong  Xiuquan  as  he   began  to  speak  out  against  Chinese  traditions  like  foot  binding  and  idols   -­‐  Unable  to  hold  any  areas  they  conquer,  the  Qing  Dynasty  crushes  the  Taiping   Rebellion       Alternative  Visions  of  the  Nineteenth  Century     Transformations  in  Other  Parts  of  the  World  (WTWA  570-­‐578)     -­‐  The  Ghost  Dance  religion  of  the  Native  Americans  was  formed  initially  by  the   overhunting  of  buffalo  because  in  a  vision  Wovoka  (their  founder)  was  told  that  the   natives  would  fall  into  despair,  but  had  a  later  vision  that  they  would  overcome  and   be  led  into  a  brighter  future   -­‐  This  resulted  in  a  renaissance  of  the  Americas  as  the  natives  were  determined  to   overcome  the  “white  man”   -­‐  Sitting  Bull  was  a  famous  member  of  the  Ghost  Dance  religion  who  saw  visions   telling  the  natives  to  overcome     -­‐  There  was  a  tremendous  revival  among  Native  Americans  but  it  was  short  lived   due  to  the  Battle  at  Wounded  Knee  where  Sitting  Bull  was  killed   -­‐  A  pattern  of  prophetic  leaders  emerge  who  look  to  the  past  to  confront  the  present   and  future   -­‐  These  leaders  preserved  the  culture  and  were  more  successful  in  places  that   haven’t  encountered  large  amounts  of  commercialism  such  as  the  Native  America,   parts  of  Latin  America,  and  outer  margins  of  the  Islamic  Empire   -­‐  During  the  decline  of  the  Safavid,  Ottoman,  and  Mughal  prophets  urged  revival  and   rebellion   -­‐  The  rise  of  Europe  and  evangelical  Christianity  threatened  Islam  in  Nigeria  (roots   of  tension)   -­‐  Wahhabism  was  the  restrictive  sect  of  Islam  developed  to  return  to  the  basic  and   pure  religion   -­‐  Its  founder,  Wahhabi,  was  very  cosmopolitan  and  traveled  and  saw  the  many   shapes  of  Islam  and  comes  up  with  a  rejection  of  those  experiences   -­‐  This  leads  to  direct  attacks  on  the  holy  cities  of  Mecca  and  Medina  and  they   eventually  fall  under  Wahhabis  control   -­‐  At  this  time,  Wahhabism  is  a  greater  threat  to  the  Ottoman  Empire  than   Muhammad  Ali  and  his  transformations  in  Egypt   -­‐  Fulani  in  West  Africa  parallels  with  what  happens  in  Wahhabism  (pure  restoration   of  the  past)   -­‐  Fulani  women  are  encouraged  to  be  modest  and  support  the  community,  having   direct  and  indirect  roles     -­‐  Women  like  Nana  Asa’u  played  more  of  a  direct  role  as  a  warrior     -­‐  Sokoto  Caliphate  was  a  new  state  where  the  growth  of  Islam  became  prevalent     -­‐  In  South  Africa,  the  military  based  Mfecane  (literally  meaning  “crushing”  or   “scattering”)  movement  rose  to  power   -­‐  Competition  intensified  with  the  arrival  of  the  British  colonizers  who  fought   against  the  Dutch  and  the  native  African  communities  and  over  2  million  people  lost   their  lives   -­‐  Shaka  Zulu,  in  turn,  created  a  ruthless  warrior  state  very  similar  to  the  ancient   Spartan  culture   -­‐  Shaka  Zulu  also  got  rid  of  smaller  states  and  created  larger  and  more  powerful   states     -­‐  This  culture  had  snowball  effect  of  violence  on  other  people  groups,  who  would   then  be  violent  to  other  people  groups  and  so  on   -­‐  Shaka  Zulu  assimilates  the  places  conquers  and  returns  to  them  the  purer  past  (not   Islamic)     Ideas  and  Culture  in  Europe  (1815-­‐1848)  (WTWA  581-­‐586)   (For  further  information  look  up  Carter’s  virtual  lecture  on  this  one)     I. European  Society  and  the  Social  Effects  of  the  Industrial  Revolution     a. Urbanization  and  urban  miseries   1. Massive  waves  of  internal  migration  from  rural  to  urban  areas   -­‐  Led  to  the  decline  of  rural  population  as  most  people  and  factories  were   located  in  cities   -­‐  The  planners  of  these  cities  were  not  prepared  for  their  exponential   population  growths   2. Growth  of  prostitution  and  urban  crime     -­‐  Because  of  such  intense  poverty  people  resorted  to  crimes  such  as  robbery   and  murder  and  women,  particularly,  resorted  to  prostitution   b. Poverty:  the  “Social  Question”     “How  do  we  address  this  overwhelming  poverty?”   1. The  “deserving”  or  undeserving  poor     -­‐  The  deserving  poor  were  people  deserving  to  be  helped  through  the  state   (elderly,  sick  and  infirm,  and  children)   -­‐  The  undeserving  poor  were  people  who  were  capable  of  work  but  remained   unemployed  and  were  drastically  looked  down  upon   2. Thomas  Malthus,  Malthusians,  and  the  belief  that  “natural”  means  would   control  population  (famine  and  poverty)   -­‐  Malthus  believed  that  the  government  should  not  interfere  when  famine   struck  because  of  the  “natural”  means  of  famine  and  death   -­‐  Basically,  people  dying  of  starvation  would  slow  down  the  population   growth   -­‐  “Poverty  was  a  social  necessity”   3. A  “revolution  in  government”:  parliamentary  legislation  aimed  at  addressing   poverty.     -­‐  The  Factory  Act  of  1833  prohibited  the  employment  of  children  under  nine   years  old  and  restricted  the  work  of  children  ages  9-­‐18       -­‐  Others  argued  against  Malthus  saying  that  industrialization  by  the  state   caused  the  poverty  so  they  should  help  clean  it  up   c. Changes  in  class  structure     1. Decline  of  the  aristocracy   -­‐  After  the  revolutions  people  wanted  to  be  free  from  the  rule  of  a  higher   class   2. Rise  of  the  middle  class  (bourgeoisie)   -­‐  Strongly  believed  in  individuality  but  also  led  to  gendered  stereotypes   -­‐  Often  identified  with  the  reign  of  Great  Britain’s  Queen  Victoria     3. Rise  of  the  working  class  (proletariat)   -­‐  They  were  very  distinct  from  the  rest  of  Europe  as  they  typically  lived  in   slums   -­‐  Women  and  children  were  considered  more  valuable  in  this  class  for  their   small  hands  and  bodies   -­‐  Proletariat  children  typically  did  not  attend  school  but  rather  worked   around  14  hours  a  day  alongside  their  parents   d. Changes  in  family  composition  and  roles  of  women     1. Concerns  about  working  class  women’s  entrance  into  the  workforce  and   corresponding  concerns  about  women’s  absence  from  the  home   2. Rationalizations  in  favor  of  child  labor     3. Debates  over  women’s  rights     a. Advocates  including  liberal  theorist  John  Stuart  Mill  and  utopian  reformer   Charles  Fourier  (utopian  socialism)   b. Seneca  Falls  Convention  and  Resolutions,  1848       II.  The  New  Ideologies     a. Liberalism     1. Principle  beliefs:  human  beings  basically  good  and  reasonable;  they  need   freedom  in  which  to  flourish     2. In  favor  of  freedom  of  the  individual       3. Classical  economics;  economic  “laws”  of  supply  and  demand    drawn  from   Adam  Smith’s  Wealth  of  Nations;  “invisible  hand”  of  the  market       4. Government  regulation  of  the  economy  to  be  avoided  at  all  costs;    this   impedes  the  function  of  “natural”  economic  laws       5. Belief  in  the  corruptibility  of  authority       6. Equality  before  the  law;  aside  from  that,  “dog  eat  dog”       7. Emphasis  on  change  through  reform,  not  revolution    (outline  continued  on   additional  page)         b. Nationalism     1. Political  doctrine  that  glorified  the  people     2.  Nationalism  could  unite  people  against  the  absolutism  of  kings  or  the   tyranny  of  foreign  oppressors     3.  Could  be  rooted  in  history  and  culture       c. Conservatism   1. Belief  in  tradition  and  order   2. Linked  belief  that  revolutions  promote  anarchy   3. Liberty  must  develop  gradually  -­‐  Edmund  Burke’s  Reflections  on  the   Revolutions  in  France  (1790)     4. Increase  in  individual  rights  does  not  lead  to  order     5. Tradition  preferable  to  “reason”       d. Socialism   (Including  the  rise  of  Karl  Marx  and  Marxism  (p.  586))   1. Working  class  constituency,  but  proponents  are  usually  members  of   bourgeoisie       2. Most  socialists  at  peace  with  industrial  revolution,    but  detest  its  negative   effects  on  society  and  proletariat     3. Attack  on  “property”:  resentment  of  control  of  means  of  production  by  a   handful       4. Cooperation  vs.  competition:  call  for  collective  ownership  of  means  of   production       5. Many  believe  in  revolutionary  change       6. Advocates  of  socialism:    Henri  de  Saint-­‐Simon,  Charles  Fourier  and   “phalanxes”  (units  in  a  communally-­‐organized  utopian  world)     III.  Romanticism  and  the  Quest  for  Identity  (peaks  between  1790s  and  1840s)     a. In  part  a  revolt  against  classicism  and  the  Enlightenment     -­‐  Enlightenment  thinkers  thought  that  the  Romans  and  Greeks  discovered  the   way  of  life  that  should  continued  to  be  followed;  the  Romantics  wanted  to   break  the  status  quo   b. New  view  of  human  possibility  and  individual  genius     -­‐  The  French  Revolution  encouraged  reconstruction  in  all  spheres   c. Belief  in  emotional  exuberance,  unrestrained  imagination,  and  spontaneity  in   both  art  and  personal  life     -­‐  “Dethronement  of  tradition”   d. At  once  escapist  and  focused  on  anxiety  in  the  midst  of  change:  romantics  in   music,  art,  and  literature  often  perceive  growth  of  modern  industry  as  ugly,   brutal  attack  on  their  beloved  nature     -­‐  Ludwig  van  Beethoven   -­‐  Romantics  not  only  looked  to  nature  for  inspiration,  but  also  to  the  past   e. Johann  Wolfgang  von  Goethe,  the  Romantic  Spirit,  and  the  Romantic  Hero   (Goethe’s  dramatic  poem  Faust  as  example)   -­‐  “The  quest  for  knowledge  was  the  essence  of  man’s  being  and  that  good  and   evil  could  not  be  disentangled  from  it”       -­‐  Napoleon  was  a  huge  fan  of  Goethe   Revolutions  Redux:  European  Protest,  Reform,  and  Rebellion  (1830-­‐1850)   (WTWA  581-­‐586)   I. European  Balance  of  Power  after  1815:  Politics,  Alliances,  and  Re-­‐ Drawing  the  Map  of  Europe   a. The  Congress  of  Vienna  (September  1814  -­‐  June  1815)   -­‐  Introduces  conservatism  and  the  desire  to  restore  monarchies   -­‐  Attempts  to  create  a  status  quo  that  will  endure   -­‐  The  ideologies  of  the  people  are  not  fixed;  they’re  moving  targets     -­‐  Strongly  adopts  a  laissez-­‐faire  style  of  economics   -­‐  The  Congress  attempts  to  restore  things  to  the  way  they  were  before   Napoleon  (Corsican  Top)  and  the  French  Revolution  messed   everything  up  and  also  try  to  preserve  it  and  make  it  long  lasting     -­‐  For  a  short  amount  of  time,  the  Congress  is  successful  in  preventing   nations  from  going  revolution  crazy   1. Central  national  actors  and  their  representatives  at  the  Congress   of  Vienna   a. Austria’s  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  von  Metternich   b. Great  Britain’s  Foreign  Secretary  Viscount  Castereagh   c. Russia’s  Tsar  Alexander  I   d. Prussia’s  King  Frederick  William  III   e. France’s  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs  Charles  Maurice  de   Talleyrand   2. Concrete  achievements  and  important  decisions  made  at  the   Congress  of  Vienna   a. The  Dutch  Republic  was  united  with  the  Austrian  Netherlands   to  form  a  single  kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  under  the  House   of  Orange   b. Norway  and  Sweden  were  joined  under  a  single  ruler   c. Switzerland  was  declared  neutral  (most  important)   d. Russia  was  given  Finland  and  effective  control  over  the  new   kingdom  of  Poland   -­‐  Russia’s  perspective  was  that  they  should  be  rewarded  for   stopping  Napoleon   e. Prussia  was  given  much  of  Saxony  and  important  parts  of   Westphalia  and  the  Rhine  Province     f. Austria  was  given  back  most  of  the  territory  it  had  lost  and  was   also  given  land  in  Germany  and  Italy  (Lombardia  and  Venice)   g. Britain  was  given  several  strategic  colonial  territories  and  also   gained  control  of  the  seas   -­‐  Since  Napoleon  could  never  conquer  the  British  navy,   everyone  knew  they  were  a  force  to  be  reckoned  with  and  gave   up  control  of  the  seas  to  them   h. France  was  restored  as  a  monarchy  under  King  Louis  XVIII   -­‐  Not  heavily  punished  because  it  was  viewed  as  Napoleon’s   fault,  not  France’s   i. Spain  was  restored  under  Ferdinand  VII     b. Balance  of  Power  and  the  Alliance  System  as  Attempt  to  “Contain”  Any   Single  Great  Power   -­‐  Since  all  the  most  influential  nations  were  on  the  same  side,  what   was  there  to  argue  about?     1. Quadruple  Alliance  becomes  Quintuple  Alliance   -­‐  England,  Russia,  Prussia,  Austria,  and  later,  France   -­‐  It  would  be  successful  as  long  as  they  maintained  lines  of   communication   2. Holy  Alliance  led  by  Tsar  Alexander  I   -­‐  Russia,  Prussia,  and  Austria   -­‐  Attempted  to  protect  Christianity  and  claimed  to  renounce  war   altogether   -­‐  They  obviously  didn’t  stick  to  their  guns  on  that  one       II. The  Revolutions  of  1830  and  1848   a. The  “forgotten  revolutions”  of  1830   1. Tested  Great  Powers’  commitment  to  stability  and  balance  of   power;  international  politics  and  domestic  instability  intimately   linked   2. Heads  of  state  willing  to  use  force  to  stamp  out  popular  protest     3. Growing  political  consciousness  at  all  levels  and  classes  of  society     b. The  Revolutions  of  1848:  going  to  the  barricades   1. Background  in  food  crisis  beginning  in  1846   -­‐  “Hunger  is  the  handmaiden  of  revolution”   2. Rising  nationalism   -­‐  People  began  identifying  with  their  land  rather  than  their  rulers   3. The  French  Revolution  of  1848   -­‐  Has  a  momentary  victory  on  the  revolutionary  side   4. Other  European  revolutions   -­‐  Unlike  France,  the  rest  of  Europe’s  revolutions  failed   detrimentally     5. 1848  revolutions  as  a  “turning  point  at  which  modern  history   failed  to  turn”   -­‐  Incredible  amounts  of  action,  but  few  lasting  results        


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