World History 1020, Week Four Notes
World History 1020, Week Four Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
February 12-‐19, Week Four Dr. David Carter World History II The Opium War and the Opening of China’s Qing Empire (WTWA 557-‐560) Prophecy and Rebellion in Qing China (WTWA 579-‐81) I. China: the Qing state under siege from within and without a. Rot from within: Qing Dynasty Background -‐ The Qing Dynasty was one of the more stable dynasties in Chinese history -‐ The Qing adopted a lot of the ideas from the dynasty that they took over (Ming) including Confucianism -‐ Because of their respect for tradition, the Qing gained support of the Scholar Gentry founded under the Ming -‐ Gained territory over Taiwan and Tibet -‐ They were successful in settling lands because of the introduction of crops from the Americas like corn and sweet potato -‐ Comprador: new class of merchants prominent in silk trade -‐ Much of China is hit by natural disasters making them extremely vulnerable -‐ It caused many empires to fall; the Qing preserved but at an extremely high cost -‐ It is often wondered if China had been involved in the Industrial Revolution if they would be as weak when Great Britain took over b. “Barbarians” at the gates: the opium trade -‐ People outside of the Wall were considered barbarians (mainly Europeans) -‐ Because of Great Britain’s control over China, there was an explosion in the importation of opium and widespread addiction -‐ Opium causes you to not care about anything, thereby it took China out of the mix of the world, which had a huge impact on culture and economy c. Lin Zexu, Great Britain and the Opium Wars (1839-‐1842) -‐ The British navy bombards the Chinese coast in a victorious attempt to protect British merchants -‐ The Treaty of Nanjing -‐ There were 5 giant ports, most notably, Hong Kong, where the British took over for an extensive period of time -‐ China began opening their ports to Europeans -‐ By the 1890s, there were 90 different Chinese ports open to merchants through China’s “open door” policy d. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-‐1864) 1. Role of Hong Xiuquan -‐ The Taiping Rebellion was not widely known in America because the Civil War was in the same general time frame -‐ The rebellion was formed by people with millenarian (or egalitarian) views -‐ According to history, the most important events are the ones with the most casualties, but while the Civil War accumulated 600,000 causalities, the Taiping Rebellion accumulated 30 million -‐ The influence of British protestant missionaries influenced Hong Xiuquan as he began to speak out against Chinese traditions like foot binding and idols -‐ Unable to hold any areas they conquer, the Qing Dynasty crushes the Taiping Rebellion Alternative Visions of the Nineteenth Century Transformations in Other Parts of the World (WTWA 570-‐578) -‐ The Ghost Dance religion of the Native Americans was formed initially by the overhunting of buffalo because in a vision Wovoka (their founder) was told that the natives would fall into despair, but had a later vision that they would overcome and be led into a brighter future -‐ This resulted in a renaissance of the Americas as the natives were determined to overcome the “white man” -‐ Sitting Bull was a famous member of the Ghost Dance religion who saw visions telling the natives to overcome -‐ There was a tremendous revival among Native Americans but it was short lived due to the Battle at Wounded Knee where Sitting Bull was killed -‐ A pattern of prophetic leaders emerge who look to the past to confront the present and future -‐ These leaders preserved the culture and were more successful in places that haven’t encountered large amounts of commercialism such as the Native America, parts of Latin America, and outer margins of the Islamic Empire -‐ During the decline of the Safavid, Ottoman, and Mughal prophets urged revival and rebellion -‐ The rise of Europe and evangelical Christianity threatened Islam in Nigeria (roots of tension) -‐ Wahhabism was the restrictive sect of Islam developed to return to the basic and pure religion -‐ Its founder, Wahhabi, was very cosmopolitan and traveled and saw the many shapes of Islam and comes up with a rejection of those experiences -‐ This leads to direct attacks on the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and they eventually fall under Wahhabis control -‐ At this time, Wahhabism is a greater threat to the Ottoman Empire than Muhammad Ali and his transformations in Egypt -‐ Fulani in West Africa parallels with what happens in Wahhabism (pure restoration of the past) -‐ Fulani women are encouraged to be modest and support the community, having direct and indirect roles -‐ Women like Nana Asa’u played more of a direct role as a warrior -‐ Sokoto Caliphate was a new state where the growth of Islam became prevalent -‐ In South Africa, the military based Mfecane (literally meaning “crushing” or “scattering”) movement rose to power -‐ Competition intensified with the arrival of the British colonizers who fought against the Dutch and the native African communities and over 2 million people lost their lives -‐ Shaka Zulu, in turn, created a ruthless warrior state very similar to the ancient Spartan culture -‐ Shaka Zulu also got rid of smaller states and created larger and more powerful states -‐ This culture had snowball effect of violence on other people groups, who would then be violent to other people groups and so on -‐ Shaka Zulu assimilates the places conquers and returns to them the purer past (not Islamic) Ideas and Culture in Europe (1815-‐1848) (WTWA 581-‐586) (For further information look up Carter’s virtual lecture on this one) I. European Society and the Social Effects of the Industrial Revolution a. Urbanization and urban miseries 1. Massive waves of internal migration from rural to urban areas -‐ Led to the decline of rural population as most people and factories were located in cities -‐ The planners of these cities were not prepared for their exponential population growths 2. Growth of prostitution and urban crime -‐ Because of such intense poverty people resorted to crimes such as robbery and murder and women, particularly, resorted to prostitution b. Poverty: the “Social Question” “How do we address this overwhelming poverty?” 1. The “deserving” or undeserving poor -‐ The deserving poor were people deserving to be helped through the state (elderly, sick and infirm, and children) -‐ The undeserving poor were people who were capable of work but remained unemployed and were drastically looked down upon 2. Thomas Malthus, Malthusians, and the belief that “natural” means would control population (famine and poverty) -‐ Malthus believed that the government should not interfere when famine struck because of the “natural” means of famine and death -‐ Basically, people dying of starvation would slow down the population growth -‐ “Poverty was a social necessity” 3. A “revolution in government”: parliamentary legislation aimed at addressing poverty. -‐ The Factory Act of 1833 prohibited the employment of children under nine years old and restricted the work of children ages 9-‐18 -‐ Others argued against Malthus saying that industrialization by the state caused the poverty so they should help clean it up c. Changes in class structure 1. Decline of the aristocracy -‐ After the revolutions people wanted to be free from the rule of a higher class 2. Rise of the middle class (bourgeoisie) -‐ Strongly believed in individuality but also led to gendered stereotypes -‐ Often identified with the reign of Great Britain’s Queen Victoria 3. Rise of the working class (proletariat) -‐ They were very distinct from the rest of Europe as they typically lived in slums -‐ Women and children were considered more valuable in this class for their small hands and bodies -‐ Proletariat children typically did not attend school but rather worked around 14 hours a day alongside their parents d. Changes in family composition and roles of women 1. Concerns about working class women’s entrance into the workforce and corresponding concerns about women’s absence from the home 2. Rationalizations in favor of child labor 3. Debates over women’s rights a. Advocates including liberal theorist John Stuart Mill and utopian reformer Charles Fourier (utopian socialism) b. Seneca Falls Convention and Resolutions, 1848 II. The New Ideologies a. Liberalism 1. Principle beliefs: human beings basically good and reasonable; they need freedom in which to flourish 2. In favor of freedom of the individual 3. Classical economics; economic “laws” of supply and demand drawn from Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations; “invisible hand” of the market 4. Government regulation of the economy to be avoided at all costs; this impedes the function of “natural” economic laws 5. Belief in the corruptibility of authority 6. Equality before the law; aside from that, “dog eat dog” 7. Emphasis on change through reform, not revolution (outline continued on additional page) b. Nationalism 1. Political doctrine that glorified the people 2. Nationalism could unite people against the absolutism of kings or the tyranny of foreign oppressors 3. Could be rooted in history and culture c. Conservatism 1. Belief in tradition and order 2. Linked belief that revolutions promote anarchy 3. Liberty must develop gradually -‐ Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolutions in France (1790) 4. Increase in individual rights does not lead to order 5. Tradition preferable to “reason” d. Socialism (Including the rise of Karl Marx and Marxism (p. 586)) 1. Working class constituency, but proponents are usually members of bourgeoisie 2. Most socialists at peace with industrial revolution, but detest its negative effects on society and proletariat 3. Attack on “property”: resentment of control of means of production by a handful 4. Cooperation vs. competition: call for collective ownership of means of production 5. Many believe in revolutionary change 6. Advocates of socialism: Henri de Saint-‐Simon, Charles Fourier and “phalanxes” (units in a communally-‐organized utopian world) III. Romanticism and the Quest for Identity (peaks between 1790s and 1840s) a. In part a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment -‐ Enlightenment thinkers thought that the Romans and Greeks discovered the way of life that should continued to be followed; the Romantics wanted to break the status quo b. New view of human possibility and individual genius -‐ The French Revolution encouraged reconstruction in all spheres c. Belief in emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life -‐ “Dethronement of tradition” d. At once escapist and focused on anxiety in the midst of change: romantics in music, art, and literature often perceive growth of modern industry as ugly, brutal attack on their beloved nature -‐ Ludwig van Beethoven -‐ Romantics not only looked to nature for inspiration, but also to the past e. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the Romantic Spirit, and the Romantic Hero (Goethe’s dramatic poem Faust as example) -‐ “The quest for knowledge was the essence of man’s being and that good and evil could not be disentangled from it” -‐ Napoleon was a huge fan of Goethe Revolutions Redux: European Protest, Reform, and Rebellion (1830-‐1850) (WTWA 581-‐586) I. European Balance of Power after 1815: Politics, Alliances, and Re-‐ Drawing the Map of Europe a. The Congress of Vienna (September 1814 -‐ June 1815) -‐ Introduces conservatism and the desire to restore monarchies -‐ Attempts to create a status quo that will endure -‐ The ideologies of the people are not fixed; they’re moving targets -‐ Strongly adopts a laissez-‐faire style of economics -‐ The Congress attempts to restore things to the way they were before Napoleon (Corsican Top) and the French Revolution messed everything up and also try to preserve it and make it long lasting -‐ For a short amount of time, the Congress is successful in preventing nations from going revolution crazy 1. Central national actors and their representatives at the Congress of Vienna a. Austria’s Minister of Foreign Affairs von Metternich b. Great Britain’s Foreign Secretary Viscount Castereagh c. Russia’s Tsar Alexander I d. Prussia’s King Frederick William III e. France’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Charles Maurice de Talleyrand 2. Concrete achievements and important decisions made at the Congress of Vienna a. The Dutch Republic was united with the Austrian Netherlands to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange b. Norway and Sweden were joined under a single ruler c. Switzerland was declared neutral (most important) d. Russia was given Finland and effective control over the new kingdom of Poland -‐ Russia’s perspective was that they should be rewarded for stopping Napoleon e. Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine Province f. Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice) g. Britain was given several strategic colonial territories and also gained control of the seas -‐ Since Napoleon could never conquer the British navy, everyone knew they were a force to be reckoned with and gave up control of the seas to them h. France was restored as a monarchy under King Louis XVIII -‐ Not heavily punished because it was viewed as Napoleon’s fault, not France’s i. Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII b. Balance of Power and the Alliance System as Attempt to “Contain” Any Single Great Power -‐ Since all the most influential nations were on the same side, what was there to argue about? 1. Quadruple Alliance becomes Quintuple Alliance -‐ England, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and later, France -‐ It would be successful as long as they maintained lines of communication 2. Holy Alliance led by Tsar Alexander I -‐ Russia, Prussia, and Austria -‐ Attempted to protect Christianity and claimed to renounce war altogether -‐ They obviously didn’t stick to their guns on that one II. The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 a. The “forgotten revolutions” of 1830 1. Tested Great Powers’ commitment to stability and balance of power; international politics and domestic instability intimately linked 2. Heads of state willing to use force to stamp out popular protest 3. Growing political consciousness at all levels and classes of society b. The Revolutions of 1848: going to the barricades 1. Background in food crisis beginning in 1846 -‐ “Hunger is the handmaiden of revolution” 2. Rising nationalism -‐ People began identifying with their land rather than their rulers 3. The French Revolution of 1848 -‐ Has a momentary victory on the revolutionary side 4. Other European revolutions -‐ Unlike France, the rest of Europe’s revolutions failed detrimentally 5. 1848 revolutions as a “turning point at which modern history failed to turn” -‐ Incredible amounts of action, but few lasting results
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