Social Psychology Week 5- Additional Notes
Social Psychology Week 5- Additional Notes PSYC 2012
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oya Zaimoglu on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Dodge, T in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Social Psychology Week 5 Self-Knowledge Learning about the self. Social comparison whereby we learn about the self by looking to other’s -Upward (comparing to better people) -Downward (comparing to people worse off than you) Self-Control Process that helps us get what we want, how we stay focused. -Self-regulation -Ego depletion or self-regulatory strength -single resource -limited Ego Depletion Test Radish study, randomly assigned to 3 conditions (taste perception). -self-regulation -no self-regulation -control Dependent variable=amount of time spent working on an unsolvable task that requires a lot of self-regulation. Summary: regulating in one domain leads to poorer regulation in another domain. Can practice improve it? Is it possible that training regimen whereby individuals engage in repeated acts of self-control increase it? Self-control strength resembles a muscle. Study: Volunteers were recruited for a larger study on smoking cessation (46 males, 46 females). Adhered to a 2- week program. Four conditions: Improve Self-Control -avoid sweets -hand grip Control -self-control salient (diary) -does not require inhibition but does require effort. Participants called telephone system daily and answered several questions. Self-Control measured: errors and stop-signal time Participants in the build-strength conditions are doing better; -Empirical support for the primary assumptions -Evidence that practicing can improve. Impression Management Attempts to get others to see us the way we see ourselves. Regulate our information to influence the impressions formed by an audience for another person. Ingratiating: flattery to get others to like you Self-handicapping: creating excuses or obstacles so that if you do poorly on a task you can avoid blaming yourself. -Excuse making -Behavioral Self-Esteem: Evaluation of oneself; self-worth; extent to which an individual views her/himself as good, capable, competent. Narcissistic: excessive self-love coupled with a lack of empathy or compassion for others. 2 Summary of the Self Major aspects of the self Self-knowledge (introspection, observation, mindsets) Self-control (limited resource; social comparison) Impression Management Self-Esteem Attitudes: Overall evaluations towards people, objects and ideas. Attitude Measurement Implicit vs. Explicit Measures Implicit: Allows us to asses attitudes that people don’t wanna confess to hearing, capture what they’re unaware of (Implicit Association Test [IAT]). Social experiences influence our attitudes -cognitive (developed because of information cognitively based) -affective (something that makes us smile i.e. puppies) -behavioral (direct interaction) Role of Conditioning 1. Classical Conditioning: Stimulus 1 Stimulus 2 Stimulus 3 (holding cup of coffee) (coffee) (drinking coffee) 2. Operant Conditioning: Behavior toward attitude reinforcement/ positive or negative object positive punishment attitudes 3 Attitudes: Are they important? Our personal feelings about an issue should determine our behavior. LaPiere Study Contrary Methodological problems Attitudes about general group, not this Asian-American couple Attitude accessibility 1. Sends letters after 2. Disconnect about the couple and situation Very little correspondence to attitude=>behavior. Besides your own personal feelings, what affects behavior? – Circumstances –other people. Attitudes (how you feel) Subjective Norms (how others feel) Intentions Behavior (plans i.e. not to get dog) Perceived Behavioral Control (ability to do behavior i.e. want dog-no money) *Marketing Perspective: advertisements=done to assume people will change behavior. Subjective Norms: Injunctive: When your perception is guided by whose opinions matter to you Descriptive: Where your beliefs about how common something/a behavior is i.e. alcohol consumption percentage reality to decrease consumption. 4 When people are overestimating descriptive norms, they try to bring it lower to decrease behavior. Attitude: -Intentional/Planned (spontaneous behaviors if attitude is accessible) -Specific (correspond to the target behavior i.e. Chinese couple experience being served -Willing to respond honestly Persuasive Communication If attitudes can influence behavior, which we know they can, one way to change behavior is to change attitudes. Advertising campaigns aim just to do that. Persuasion-Factors to Consider Certain factors can lead to more attitude change, three factors; 1. Source (expertise): refers to the person delivering the info 2. Message (length, strength): refers to what’s being said 3. Audience (ability, motivation): refers to the recipient Persuasion Process: Motivation Process What Promotes Att. Change -Relevant Central Quality of Argument -Knowledgeable Route -Ability Processing 5 -Not relevant Peripheral Source attractiveness -Distracted/tired Route fame, expertise, number -Lack ability Processing and length of argument Central Route Processing: Attitudes are affected by the quality of the argument. Peripheral cues are not important, such as expertise, attractiveness, and length of message. Peripheral Route Processing: Attitudes are affected by peripheral cues such as lenght and not necessarily quality of argument. Feels like individuals are using heuristics. Long=strong Attractive=good/truthful Effects of Message Strength and Source -Matching arguments with attitude type. When you’re developing persuasion, it will be more effective if it matches the attitude. -Mood as a heuristic: when individuals are in a bad mood, they tend to be more critical. -Emotion (fear): fear appeals; if you include an aspect of fear, it can be highly effective, but too much fear is a bad thing. When fear is used to get people into CRP and give them something factual=highly persuasive. Resisting Attitude Change Attempts 6 -Inoculation: if you know that someone’s gonna come talk to you, you think about what they’re gonna talk about and expose yourself to the elements of the argument. -Awareness of Product Placement: obviously pointing out 7
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