History 202 Study Guide WEEK 3
History 202 Study Guide WEEK 3 History 202
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by kiara campbell on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by DR. ROWLAND in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
History 202 Study Guide WEEK 3 Professor: Rowland Section: 003 Topic 2 SETTLING THE WEST AND THE CLOSE OF THE FRONTIER A. MANIFEST DESTINY Clear that god has given them destiny to “win” the West Judeo-Christian Myth- open wild unmanaged land doesn’t sit well i. Religion commands what men should do with nature/environment ii. Forests are viewed as evil (example: Hogwarts, little red riding hood, Hansel & Gretel) iii. They must tame the wild West B. Transcontinental Railroad Plans to link California to New York before the Civil war 4 Big Financiers i. Hired native born Americans and immigrants ii. Later adopts Chinese workforce o White workers strike for more pay, drank and were unreliable o The Chinese workers accept lower wages, were reliable, cooked for themselves (less money to pay for food then) and completed the jobs that needed to be done C. Taming the West By 1880s more construction of continental railroads took place This was viewed as “winning the west” Designed to be the engines of trade and development Railroad needed settled communities all along the lines i. The railroad promoters would pitch land to people so they’d settle there ii. 2.5 mill settlers were lured out to the great plains iii. Were encouraged to farm and cash crop The government also encouraged people to come settle in the Great Plains Homestead Act of 1862 i. Declared that if you stayed 5 years, the land given to you would become free afterwards Barbed Wire in 1872 Homesteaders can now fence off their property Had free open range land before this Climate on Plains Very tough climate Insects, pests, droughts and floods were major issues for farmers Sodbusters of the Plains Had to bust the sod to plant Created sod huts because they had no access to lumber Farmers and The Trains Railroad begins to jack up the rates of freight without government regulation Powerless farmers are now at the mercy of the Railroads Rise of the Granger Movement i. Hard to organize because they were so spread out over the plains ii. Political action groups whose intent is to apply pressure on State government to get the government to act on their behalf iii. They wanted regulated prices iv. They provided educational/social services Grangers were not always successful in combating the Railroads i. The power of the Big Business is too great ii. The government was on the Railroads side D. Ranching, Drives, Cowboys and the Cattle Industry Ranching Becoming free open range ranching which requires many cowboys Texas Cattle Drive o Drive the cattle to cow towns where the railroads were o Were very organized Cowboy Cowboys originated in Mexico Had many tasks to do for the Drive o Round, cut, brand, etc Were very unattractive jobs Most did it as a once in a lifetime experience Devil’s Addition in Kansas Cowtowns Family oriented, tidy culture VS rough vulgar cowboys o Permanent residents tolerated the other side of the town o The other side consisted of saloons, prostitution houses, etc The locals endured this behavior/lifestyle because of the economic benefits Decline of Cowtowns and Golden Era 1. Expansion of Railroads No need to drive cattle as much 2. Conflict with Homesteaders Barbwires end open range concept Now with the limited space they need to shelter their animals The locals become tired of the rowdy cowboy 3. Locals tired of “Texas Tick” The tick infects the domestic cattle The tick was carried by the long horns on drives, and the locals want to ban the long horns from their area 4. Harsh Weather Harsh weather makes it difficult for locals to survive and sustain E. Myth of the Cowboy- An American Invention The great myth of who the Americans are comes from the cowboys Myth Reality Cowboys are white Many freemen and Mexicans Cowboy for life One-time thing Life of 99% boredom and 1% panic adventure/excitement Collaborative effort/team Supreme individual oriented Always has a gun with Not allowed to carry guns- them would spook cattle Lawless Crowd Had to obey the town rules Myth with a Capital “M” Throughout history cultures developed myths about their origins These myths tell us what we think of ourselves as well as what we want others to think of us as America’s myth: o Founding fathers: George Washington was honest, forthright, strong, healthy Myth of the Cowboy: o Tells us America is a country of Men and the men run it (Women are loyal and are in charge of the domestic life) o W.A.S.P – White Anglo Saxon Protestant o Individualism (lone wolf) o Strong willed, stand up guys who are action oriented (shoot first, ask questions later) Myth comes out of East not West F. CLOSE OF THE FRONTIER People start working in the mill, factory, etc Loss of independence No control of what kind of work they do and when they do it. o The machines are more valuable than the workers Explosion in Print Media The number of Dallies explode Creates high competition o Yellow Kid and Yellow Journalism o Creates crazy stories for entertainment but they are lies A fascination with crime, adventure, danger and disaster o Penny gazettes, police gazettes, Victorian-era dime novels tell stories of amusement Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show o Very popular world wide o Portrayed west conquest as the Indians attacking the whites, where the whites were victims and had no choice but to defend themselves. This led to them winning the land. G. Conquering the West: Fate of the American Indians Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian policy post Civil War= Remove Indians on plains/mountains west to reservations Sherman: “Either Indians submit… Or exterminate them” Pattern Emerges- Sioux Nation 1. Indians forced to sign treaties, give up land and more onto reservations 2. Gold/ precious metal found on reservations in 1872 and settlers move in to take over 3. Indians react 4. Army called in to deal with Indian resistance 5. Treaties modified/renegotiated a. Indians ended up with less land Army Changed Tactics 1. Calvary is no real match to Indian fighters on horses 2. Advantage lay in numbers, technology, and organizational skills 3. Attack base camps in the winter 4. Destroys livelihood (what Indians use to survive) which is the buffalo a. Railroad companies/settlers encouraged wide-scale buffalo hunts 5. Use Indian tribes to hunt down illusive Indian groups a. They exploit the disagreements between the various tribes Cutler and the Little Big Horn (1876) Cutler used Crow scouts to find other Indians He learned of a large group gathered somewhere He decided to attack o This was led on by poor judgment and he became a victim of his own success o He thought because he raided and won other Indian settlements in the same manner he could do it again The Indians defeated Custer This was a huge embarrassing loss o Especially because it was the sentential and everyone was celebrating Army Grinds Down The Nez Perce Indians were forced to sign a treaty and were given small land in Idaho Settlers began to move onto reservation violating the treaty The Nez Perce tried to flee to Canada o They hit the army while fleeing o Army wouldn’t stop coming for them o Nez Perce get worn down of long flee and rested, however the army caught up and the Nez Perce surrendered Last Gasp: Ghost Dance Vision at Wounded Knee This was the last of the Indian Resistance Did a ghost dance and believed they would be protected from bullets Army demanded all Indians to return to Reservation by a certain time 1 group got delayed and couldn’t make it o U.S cavalry showed up which happened to be Custards army o Still had old grudges from the Little Big Horn battle o Massacred all the Indians they found (men, women and children) o Mutilated/ desecrated their bodies Indian Settlement 1850 Oklahoma remained Indian Territory The are was not great, much illness was there This land got taken away form them too because settlers rushed in who were called “sooners” Now the land was open to settlement
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