Global Experience Week 4
Global Experience Week 4 GLST 1000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keyanna Alexander on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GLST 1000 at North Carolina Central University taught by Dr. Joshua Nadel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Global Experience in History at North Carolina Central University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
GSLT 1000 – Week 4 Global Capitalism (Frieden) To avoid the same outcomes of WWI, Western Allies determined the world’s economic system through international negotiations. President Woodrow Wilson was a supporter of American internationalism. Lean Fraser – NYC’s 1 national bank, determined the 3 evils of international trade: economic nationalism, trade barriers, war. Post War Order o Freer Trade: Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 (Secretary of State Hull) created the International Trade Organization (US and England) o International Monetary Stability: Gold-Dollar Standard led to the creation of International Monetary Fund by Keynes and White o Recovery of International Investment: International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (aka World Bank) International Investment Impediments o International Finance leads to Diplomatic Disputes, Eugene Staley “War and the Private Investor” suggest that funds should not give rights to become allies o High Risk equates to Low Investing Bretton- Woods Agreement Acts o Established World Bank, IMF, and Gold-Dollar Standard o 44 countries in attendance o Focused on global economy being regulated, government overseeing trade, welfare states Global Studies (Campbell) Chapter Two State – a sovereign, internationally recognized and geographically defined territory with a population and government Nation – a shared cultural or ethnic identity rather than to a legally recognized geographic territory Nation-State – type of state that provides sovereign territory for a particular culture or ethnic group, frequently used interchangeably with the terms “state” or “county” Secular – not religious Bubonic plague/Black Death – pandemic caused by a bacterium that swept through Central Asia and Europe around the 1340’, killing millions. Temporal affairs – secular. Rather than sacred matters Indulgence – in Catholic faith, after a sinner has confessed and received absolution, the guilt of sin is removed but temporal punishment is still required by Divine Justice, either in this life or in Purgatory, this removes the need for a punishment. Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther’s attempt to reform the Catholic Church that led to a schism within the church and the development of the Protestant sect Thirty Years War – beginning as a religious conflict, spread across Europe and devastated the continent, 1618-1648 Peace of Westphalia – Common term for two treaties signed in 1648 50 end Europe’s Thirty Years War Westphalia System – current political structure of the sovereignty of the nation-state Sovereignty – principle that emerged from the Peace of Westphalia which suggests that a political entity has the sole authority to make decisions about policy, procedure, and institutions within a given geographically territory Colonialism – one territorial sovereign exerting control and sovereignty over another land by usurping control from local leaders, thereby destroying indigenous culture, economics, and political structures. Encomienda system – Forced labor system introduced by the Spanish during the conquest of the Americas that effectively transferred indigenous land to the Conquistadors and made the local populations landless slaves Cold War – ideological stand-off between two superpowers (US and Soviet Union), both sought to expand influence through blocking the other’s political system from spreading, resulting in many proxy wars throughout the world Migration – human movement from one location to another, migrates Ethno-nationalism – characterized by an extreme attachment to ethnicity, a belief that only ancestry gives one the right to belong to a particular group, and a desire to establish independent nation-states based solely on ethnicity. International Governmental Organizations (IGO) – nation-states join for specific reasons such as promoting peace, enhancing trade, and encouraging cooperation. Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) – a legally constructed organization made up of individuals, limited role for nation-states Multinational Corporations (MNCs) – corporation or enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country Apartheid – system of racial segregation in South Africa, citizens were divided into Blacks, Coloureds, Whites, and Indians, all but Whites had their civil and political rights denied Mercenary – private citizen who is paid by a political entity to provide armed support Sanctions – typically refers to economic restrictions or embargos placed on a nation-state Chapter Three International Organization (IO) – organization made up of nation-states Treaty – legally binding agreement between two or more states., or international organizations Organs – agencies within organizations that perform specific functions Adjudication – settling a dispute through a formal structure such as a court room Fourteen Points – speech given by US President Woodrow Wilson, framework for the peace treaty that ended WWI, called for an association that would work towards world peace Charter – document incorporating an institution and outlining its rights and duties League of Nations – Established by the Treaty of Versailles, designed to provide a forum for conflict dispute resolution, thereby preventing war Treaty of Versailles - ended WWI, demanded Germany take full responsibility for the way and make reparations to the states it had injured International Labor Organization (ILO) – specialize agencies of the UN, work to promote decent working conditions across the globe Noble Peace Prize – Alfred Noble, wanting to award those promoting peace United Nations (UN) – founded to prevent war and to promote peace and international cooperation UN General Assembly – organ of UN that acts as its legislative branch, all member nations can send delegates, forum for international dialogue. Secretary General (UN) – official spokesman for UN, in charge of the administration of the organization, Ban Ki-Moon Permanent Members – UN Security Council (US, China, France, England, Russia) Balkans – Geographical and historic term for Southeastern Europe including Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, etc. UN Security Council (UNSC) – organ of the UN that is responsible for maintaining peace and security, 10 members rotate every two years UN Economic and Social Council – organ of UN that promotes international cooperation and development, majority of UN’s work UN Statistical Yearbook – published every year, economic, social, and environmental data Trusteeship Council – organ of UN responsible for assisting with the transition of former colonies to independent countries, went out of commission in 1994 Oceania – group of islands located in the Pacific Ocean International Court of Justice (ICJ) – judicial organ of the UN, has the power to hear cases involving nation-states Secretariat – administrative organ of UN Suez Crisis – a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, Israel after Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal Assessment – amount of money each country is asked to contribute to the UN’s regular budget Arrears – portion of the state’s assessment that remains unpaid after it is due Preventive Diplomacy – diplomatic efforts to reduce chances of impending conflict, or to prevent an imminent conflict World Trade Organization (WTO) – designed to promote free and uniform trade and baking and finance rules and regulations Liberize – to reduce restrictions on trade Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) Status – non-discrimination, each member nation treats virtually every other member equally Export Subsidies – form of subsidy provided by a government to help companies ro manufacturing sectors lower their export costs Tariffs – taxes placed on imported goods Quotas – limits on the amount of a product a country will allow into its market in an effort to protect domestic manufacturers European Union (EU) – a regional organization for European states that seeks to create unified social, political, and economic policies Maastricht Treaty – formally created the EU Supranational Organization- given authority by its member nations to make decisions that take precedence over member nations’ policies, usually lacks enforcement powers itself North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – reginal collective self-defense organization Appease – to be pacific, or to concede in order to avert or ameliorate conflict Warsaw Pact – a collective self-defense organization made up of the Soviet Union and its allies, disbanded in 1991 African Union – organization of African states that is designed to promote peace, human rights, democracy and inter-continental cooperation Organization of American States (OAS) – regional organization for the states of the Americas, whose purpose is to promote social and economic development in the Western hemisphere NAFTA – free trade agreement between the US, Canada, and Mexico that sought to encourage trade between the three countries League of Arab States – regional international organization of Arab states designed to promote cooperation among and safeguard the sovereignty of member states Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – made up of oil- producing countries, tries to stabilize the oil market by regulating the supple of the commodity Universal Declaration of Human Rights – adopted by the UN in 1948, describes the rights to which all human beings are entitled Kyoto Protocol – UN Convention designed to lower greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change Amnesty International – NGO dedicated to the protection of political and civil human rights
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