Survey of Primates
Survey of Primates APY 203
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
SURVEY OF PRIMATES LIVING PRIMATE TAXONOMY Taxonomy; the process of classification of living organisms 2 competing visions for how primates should be arranged bc Tarsiers are outliers… They exhibit a combo of primitive and derived traits Prosimians (focus on Tarsiers more ancestral features) & Anthropoids V.S. Strepsirhines (Tarsiers more derived features) & Haplorhines 5 taxonomic divisions w.in primate order, where there were splits/ speciation creating diff lineages. Important to know these characteristics for each taxon Geographical Range Locomotion-> intermembral index (ratio of forelimb to hind limb length) 1= same arm and leg length ex. Horse, quadrupedal High index= long arms ex. arboreal brachiation Lwo index (longer legs) leaping ex. Kangaroo Diet Derived Features (apomorphies) Mating/ Child rearing Social Strcucture Dental Formula I C P M (incisors, canines, premolar, molar) this number specific to 1. STREPSIRHINES VS HAPLORHINES S: (lemurs, lorises, galagos) Lower more primitive primates (retain more ancestral traits) Smaller brains (absolutely and relatively) Moist rhinarhium Greater reliance on olfaction Long snout Bigger olfactory bulb Eyes on side of head Post orbital bar Nocturnal (75% of the time) Tapetum lucidum Eyes glow when shine light at night Unfused mandible and frontal bone Suture persists throughout life Bicornuate uterus Two areas where possibly 2 babies could gestate, more primitive retention of large litter size Also at least 2 pairs of nipples, same reason Grooming features Grooming claw Tooth comb Reduced upper incisors 55-80 mya splits H: everything else (tarsiers, NWM, OWM, Apes, Humans) Bigger brains, more complex arrangement No moist rhinarium (dry nose) Greater reliance on vision Shorter nose Smaller olfactory bulbs Eyes on front of head Post orbital closure/bar Increased reliance on vision= features to protect eye Diurnal (all but 2) That exception shows the feature was lost at ancestral split and came back again… Fused mandible and frontal Simplex uterus No grooming feature LEMURS & LORISES Suborder Strepsirhini the most primitive/non-derived among living primates more pronounced reliance on olfactory sense (long snout, rhinarium; fleshy moist pad nose) eye placed more to the side of the face shorter gestation period + shorter maturation period grooming claw; retention of second claw on second toe “dental comb”; forward facing lower incisors + canines for eating and grooming (derived) Good grasping and climbing abilities Well-developed visual apparatus but not as good color nor stereoscopic vision LEM AND LOR split 65-75mya… INFRAORDER: LEMURIFORMS (LEMURS) Only Madagascar (guess they rafted over on masses of trees/plants/things to island) Able to become very diversified into varied ecological niches bc they’re the only primates on these islands they underwent adaptive radiation… Diversify rapidly to fill multitude of ecological niches Ex. Aye aye evolves really long middle finger to get to grubs (similar to a woodpecker Sympatric Diff species live cohesively amongst each other, occupying different ecological niches A lot of behavioral variation (some arboreal, terrestrial, vertical leapers, quadrupeds, social, solitary) Larger lemurs usually diurnal w. wide variety in diet Smaller lemurs usu. nocturnal insectivores Mouse Lemur Very very small Eat lots of high energy food/ low metabolic investment, insects, tree sap/gum, fruit Fork-marked Lemur Also small Vertical climbers Diet, lots of tree gum/sap (use tooth comb to scrape gum off side of tree) Ring-tailed Lemurs Scent marking (primitive) Grooming Larger social groups (sometimes up t0 20) Sifakas Vertical clinging and leaping very low Intermembral index (long hind legs, shorter forelimbs, + flexible spine) Aye Aye Dental Form; 1003 Highly specialized (to get grubs, long middle finger, strange dental formula) INFRAORDER: LORISIFORMS (LORISES) Parts of W. and Central Africa, Southeast Asia Nocturnal, avoid competition w. diurnal primates Slow quadrupedal climbing or highly agile vertical climbers/leapers (galagos) Insectivorous (some entirely), plus fruits and leaves Parking; Leave infants alone at times (extremely uncommon among primates), coats it w. poisonous glandular/saliva secretion to protect when done Grooming claw retained on second toe Slow moving, stealthy Sympatric living Reduced second digit allows to grab onto thicker tree branches Special blood flow to hands and feet Live in very small groups Still some scent marking 2lbs or under Roughly same length limbs Galago (Bush Babies) Small Big ears Long tails (for balance, rudder) Leaping Long hindlimbs TARSIERS V.S. all the other Haplorhines Tarsiers Islands Southeast Asia, wide range of habitats Nocturnal Insectivores Vertical climbing and leaping Social unit of mated pair and offspring Highly specialized/derived, complex blend of characteristics (which make them hard to classify) Enormous eyes are immobile in sockets, rotate head 180º Closer relation to monkeys, apes, and humans than lemurs and lorises ANTHROPOIDS Monkeys, Apes, & Humans: traits that set them apart from Lemurs&Lorises Larger body size Larger brain size w. respect to body weight Reduced reliance on olfaction (no rhinarium, smaller olfactory structures in brain) Increased reliance on vision, forward facing eyes front of face Greater degree of color vision Bony plate protects back of eye socket Different blood supply to brain Fusion bone into one mandible Generalized dentition for wide diet Difference in female reproductive anatomy Longer gestations and maturation period Increased paternal care More mutual grooming NEW WORLD MONKEYS Southern Mexico, Central and South America Arboreal environments Wide variation in size, diet, and ecological adaptation Diurnal Platyrrhine; flatter broad noses, outward facing nostrils Fruits, leaves, insects Mostly quadrupedal, some are semibrachiators Live in mixed sex groups of all aged categories, some from monogamous pairs OLD WORLD MONKEYS, Family; Cercopithecidae →Sub-families; cercopithecines, colobines Catarrhine; narrower, downward facing nose Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, widely distributed throughout habitats Most quadrupedal, arboreal (guenons, macaques, langurs) Terrestrial quad; (baboons, macaques) spend most of day on ground and return to trees at night Sexual dimorphism; differences in phys. characteristics between male and females of same species Pronounced cyclical changes in female genitalia correlated with ovulation, serve as indication of being sexually receptive Monogamous pairings not common Cercopithecines More generalized Omnivorous Majority found in Africa Colobines Narrower diet; mature leaves Mainly found in Asia live in small groups, 1 or 2 adult males HOMOPLASY IN OW & NW MONKEYS Adapted to primarily arboreal life even through geographically distinct still similar selective pressures Diurnal Social groupings Omnivorous Quadrupedal w. varying degrees of locomotion Possibly arose from common African ancestor then lineages evolved separately HOMINOIDS; APES & HUMANS HOW APES & HUMANS DIFFER FROM MONKEYS Superfamily; Hominoids Larger body size No tail Shorter, more stable lower back Arms longer than legs (apes) Anatomically different shoulder joint (for suspensory feeding/locomotion) Complex behavior Complex cognition/ brain capabilities Increased period of infant dependency/development GIBBONS & SIAMANGS Smaller apes, long slender bodies Excel at brachiation while feeding Long permanently curved fingers and short thumbs Powerful arm muscles Diet mostly fruit, some insects, leaves, and flowers Highly territorial, defend with “whoops” and “siren-songs” Group usually male and female adult + dependent offspring (though not entirely monogamous) ORANGUTANS slow cautious climbers almost completely arboreal pronounced sexual dimorphism largely solitary lives, females with 1 or 2 dependent offspring primarily frugivorous (fruit eating) plus bark, leaves, insects GORILLAS W. & E. Africa Largest of all living primates Pronounced sexual dimorphism Adults (males especially) highly terrestrial Groups made of 1 or 2 large silverback males + number of adult females + subadult offspring + sometimes 1 or 2 smaller “blackback” males. (typical for young adults fem/males to leave natal (where born/raised) groups) Violent competition for females but otherwise not terribly violent unless for defense usually placid and quiet Mostly exclusively vegetarian CHIMPANZEES Equatorial Africa Similar limb proportions and upper body structure as gorillas More time in trees Easily excitable/active/noisy Not as pronounces sexual dimorphism Quadrupedal knuckle walking, also brachiate, also bipedal for short distances Wide diet; leaves to small mammals, even group hunting Groups made of s core a few closely bonded males to cooperatively defend group/territory More common for females to leave natal group than males Complex social behavior Many live well into 40s BONOBOS S. of Zaire River DRC Africa Resemble chimpanzees but smaller, longer legs than arms, less stalky, smaller head more arboreal, less excitable/ aggressive than chimps male-female bonding frequent copulation, even same sex HOOMANS Only habitually bipedal primates Typical primate teeth but reduced canine size Flexible limbs Omnivorous Reliance on vision over smell Generalized digestive system Evolved dramatic increase in brain size Language, culture, intel., tech.
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