Psychology 100 Weekly Notes (Feb 16/18th)
Psychology 100 Weekly Notes (Feb 16/18th) PSYCH 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Raite on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Joshua Wede in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Exam 2 Material Begins: Only one lecture this week due to testing Lecture 8 – Perceptual Organization Perceptual Illusions- using the environment to create meaning • To understand how perception is organized, illusions provide good examples. • Muller-Lyer Illusion Which segment is longer AB or BC? • Ames Room What is wrong with this picture?- Room appears perfectly square, when it is not • Tall Arch Is the arc taller than it is wide, or wider than it is tall? • Watercolor effect- How we fill in surfaces- brain fills in the eges Figure and Ground Our brain mus deciede what is a figure and what is the ground, on exam, know why after image is made and how opponent process theory supports it Then it has to decide which part of an object goes with which part Figure and Ground Examples - Old lady/young lady -Vase/Cup or two faces Can never see both images Depth Perception Depth perception enables us to judge distances. 2 Types of Cues Binocular Uses both eyes Monocular Only requires 1 eye Binocular cues Retinal disparity (binocular disparity) Our eyes are located slightly apart Image on each retina is slightly different When brain combines images, it sees things in 3-d Example - See a “finger sausage” in front of your nose? Example – Magic Eye Convergence Our eyes move together to focus on something close, farther apart for distant objects Monocular cues- require only one eye Relative Size If two objects are similar in size, one that casts a smaller retinal image as farther away. Interposition (occulation) One object blocks our view of another, the object that is blocking is closer Aerial Perspective Light passes through atmosphere More atmosphere – more noise (haze) Clear objects are closer Linear Perspective Parallel lines appear to converge with distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance. KNOW THAT LINEAR PERSPECTIVE IS DIFFERENT FROM CONVERGANCE Texture Gradient We see fewer details (texture) the farther an object is from us Motion Parallax Close objects appear to move more quickly than objects that are farther away Depth Cues Used by artists all the time Perceptual Constancies Perceiving the properties of an object to remain the same even though the physical properties are changing Stimulus (retinal image) changes, percept stays the same Shape constancy Shaper perception always the same, retinal image Size constancy We perceive an object as same size, even it retinal changes Size-distance relationship Color Constancy Color of an object remains the same under different illuminations. However, when context changes, color of an object may look different All the time? • Perceptual constancies Retinal image changes, percept stays the same • Checkerboard illusion Retinal image same – percept changes Depends on context • Change context, percept changes!! Lecture 9 – Intro to Memory & Encoding Memory – Persistence of learning over time, through active encoding, storage and retrieval of information • Memory Process – Encoding – getting information into memory system – Storage – retention of information – Retrieval – getting information out – Memory: Encoding------Storage------Retrieval (Keyboard) (Disk) (Monitor) • Information Processing – Three-stage model of memory (Atkinson-Shiffrin) Sensory memory – immediate, brief recording of sensory information Short Term memory - holds a few items for a short time Long term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage Sensory Memory-----Short Term Memory----___ Long Term Memory • Working Memory (Baddeley)= Short Term Memory – Much more realistic (and complex) representation of STM – Contains auditory and visual-spatial elements Encoding Information – Events we notice and attend one encoded message in working memory – Further processing and rehearsing may encode parts in long-term memory • Automatic Processing – Enormous amount of information is processed effortlessly Space Time • Effortful processing – Novel information committed to memory requires effort Learning a concept from a text. • Maintenance (Rote) Rehearsal – Repeating information to keep in working memory Memorization of facts Once stop – generally goes away Might get into LTM • Elaborative Rehearsal – Transfer info from STM to LTM by making info meaningful Leads to much stronger LTM Relating information to prior knowledge • What do we encode? – There are many ways to encode information Semantic encoding (meaning) Acoustic encoding (sound) Visual encoding (visual structure) • Encoding Meaning • Visual Encoding: envisioning your own house is a great example – Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing (not necessarily the same as visual encoding) Especially when combined with semantic encoding.
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