Intro to Philosophy: Greek Foundations Notes Week Four
Intro to Philosophy: Greek Foundations Notes Week Four Philosophy 10200
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Gendron on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 10200 at Ithaca College taught by Prof. Robert Klee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy Greek Foundations in PHIL-Philosophy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Intro to Philosophy Greek Foundations Notes Week Four The Pythagorean Tetractys 9 11 Fundamental Q Q 21 fglfth of the skeptics 0 Found that one could argue equally well for either side of Sextus Empiricus The founder an argument Fragment 16 of Pythagoras quotThe tetractys is a certain number which being composed of the four rst numbers produces the most perfect number 10 For 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 come to be 10 This number is the rst tetractys and is called the source of ever owing nature since according to them the entire kosmos is organized according to harmonia and harmonia is a system of three concords the fourth the fth and the octave and the proportions of these three concords are found in the aforementioned four numbers Sextus Empiricus Against the Mathematicans 79495 not in DK 0 The Greeks were obsessed with physical beauty and physical perfection Plato like the Pythagoreans and their ideas and was in uenced by them The Pythagoreans brought the idea of Reductionism to a whole new level through their belief of everything in the world reducing to a number 0 Everything in the universe could be explained by reducing it down to a number by way of some derived formula Heraclitus of Ephesus c 540 480 BCE Very hated remembered because of people s loathing for him No other ancient philosopher was as obscure as him with their ideas and writings He had many nicknames including quotThe Riddlerquot and quotThe Obscure onequot Had a reputation for obscurity and misanthropy hatred of humans He is responsible for introducing the logos the single most in uential concept in philosophy and western intellect o Logos Translates to Reason account argument sentence word explanation statement speech ratio very hard to translatethere is no one translation Important Reading Recaps on Heraclitus Fragment 1 Verv important to Heraclitus s Views Humans seem unwilling and unable to understand the concept of logos even though it is placed right in front of them Fragment 2 There is the way things appear to us and then there is reality The average person goes on living and never questions what they have been taught or exposed to and just was taken as truth quotFor this reason it is necessary to follow what is common But although the logos is common most people live as if they had their own private understandingquot Sextus Empiricus Against the Mathematicans 7132 Fragment 8 quotWhat understanding or intelligence have they They put their trust in popular bards and take the mob for their teacher unaware that most people are bad and few are goodquot Proclus Commentary on Plato s Alcibades l 117 Fragment 20 quotFor the waking there is one common world but when asleep each person turns away to a private onequot PseudoPlutarch On Superstition 166C Further Class notes on Heraclitus Heraclitus was a curmudgeon someone who called out the quotBSquot about theoriesbeliefs when they weren t backed by valid supports Some say that logos truth but many cannot understand itsee what it is due to the surface appearances oThe logos is universal there is an objective truth to everything and everyone Heraclitus believes that humans are too shallow too preoccupied and too deaf to really understand things as they are for they cannotwill not hear the logos properly o They hear it but cannot comprehend what it was saying to them He was remembered as the rst philosopher to not like poets o He and many other philosophers had an obsession with selfcontrol of quotthe passionsquot by reason and therefore didn t support many poets views of promoting oneself to feel and be open to their emotions Four of Heraclitus s main beliefs 0 1 The Unity of Opposites Heroclitus claimed that opposites are in fact quotonequot all is unity ie War is peace peace is war day is night life is death etc 0 Supported by fragments 11 57 60 amp 61 o 2 Heraclitus was fond of re and claimed re is both the origin and destroying factor of the world It came from re and cyclically returns to re in a universal con guration 0 Supported by fragments 45 49 amp 51 g All is in ux The idea is that despite surface appearances as to something staying the same nothing is really stable and unchanging there is constant change ux hidden under the observable appearances of things quotYou cannot step in the same river twicequot Is one of Heraclitus s most famous remarks he made 0 Supported by fragments 39 40 41 amp 80 1 The stupidityignorance of ordinary people Heraclitis insisted that most of the evil deeds that humans do are not done deliberately but rather out of stupidity Plato also insists on this explanation for human evil with his controversial argument that no one can do evil knowingly 0 Supported by Fragments 7 8 15 43 100 102 106 107 108 amp 109 0 Essential Property A property that if you changedlost you would cease to be ex If your biological parents weren t your parents 0 Accidental Property A property that could be changed or taken away from you that would not impact anything about you if it no longer existedchanged ex If you are wearing a hat and then take off the hat you would still be you The hat holds no integrity as to who you are as a human Heraclitis disliked ordinary people living ordinary lives because ordinary life according to him shuts people off from hearing the genuine logos of things 0 Logos should not be interpreted as referring to anything really supernatural or religious He was not fond of traditional religions The logos of a thing is the correct account of its nature He was hostile to almost all previous philosophers because he thought their thinking was too conventionaltraditional Believed formal learning does not teach genuine insight The Eleatics Paramenides c 515 BCE c 450 BCE from Elea o Living in an area that was Pythagorean o His most famous pupil was Zeno of Elea He wrote a single poem o It is infamously hard to fathom and is notable for its obscure and mystical style 0 Whole passages of this poem are incomprehensible to a modern mind 0 Fragment 8 of this poem contains Paramenides main ideas He wanted to remystify things which was what philosophers had been trying to move away from for a long while He was extremely in uential and very highly thought of o Other philosophers who came after him felt the need to respond to certain issues that he brought up The One Claimed the impression we get from ordinary life that the world contains a plurality of different kinds of things is really an illusion there is really only one 39thing that exists and its called The One The only thing that can ever be asserted is the statement quotIt isquot Everything else is inaccurate oThe One is ungenerated eternal indivisible continuous motionless unstopping the same everywhere and the same as thought Lines 714 of Fragment 8 are the most famous of the entire poem
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